PerceptionAndThoughtAsInteractiveActivation2011

# PerceptionAndThoughtAsInteractiveActivation2011 -...

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Perception, Thought and Language as Graded Constraint Satisfaction Processes: Models and Theory Jay McClelland SymSys 100 April 12, 2011

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Perception as Constraint Satisfaction • For the first figure, one tends to see it a nothing until the ‘solution’ emerges. – The pieces and the whole simultaneously support each other • For the second, there are two alternative solutions, each involving a re- interpretation of every part of the larger whole. – Again the parts and the whole are mutually consistent
Ubiquity of the Constraint Satisfaction Problem • In sentence processing – I saw the grand canyon flying to New York – I saw the sheep grazing in the field • In comprehension – Margie was sitting on the front steps when she heard the familiar jingle of the “Good Humor” truck. She remembered her birthday money and ran into the house. • In reaching, grasping, typing…

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Puzzles and Thought Problems that Can Involve Constraint Satisfaction Find a word that you can combine with each of the next three words to make a compound word: Pine, crab, tree Make a single word by rearranging the letters in the phrase below: A rope ends it You know how much gold weighs per cubic centimeter, and you want to test whether the king’s golden crown is pure gold. But you don’t know the volume in cc’s of the crown. How can you find out?
How Geniuses Think Barwise and Etchemendy, two Stanford logicians, agree They argue that nearly all great discoveries arise through intuition, not manipulation of equations After mathematicians make a discovery, they then attempt to verify it formally While the insight may have happened suddenly, the proof may take years to develop Once a proof has been established, it is typically reported in a publication that says nothing about the intuition behind it

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Finding Perceptual Solutions • It appears that our brains can search for alternative solutions until one pops out. • How are such solutions found? – One answer is that the process occurs through a noisy, interactive activation process.
Constraint Satisfaction Process Units represent hypotheses about the visual input at several levels and positions. Features Letters Words Connections code contingent relations: Excitatory connections for consistent relations Inhibitory connections for inconsistent relations Lateral inhibition for competition among mutually inconsistent possibilities within levels. Connections run in both directions

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PerceptionAndThoughtAsInteractiveActivation2011 -...

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