Sag1 - English Auxiliaries and the Chomskyan Revolution...

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English Auxiliaries and the Chomskyan Revolution Ivan A. Sag Stanford University
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The 19th Century ± 19th Century linguistics = the systematic study of the genetic relations among languages. ± Family trees ± The Indo-European language family ± The reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European (PIE)
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The early 20th Century ± Ferdinand de Saussure (1857 – 1913) Synchronic vs. diachronic linguistics ‘Langue’ vs. ‘parole’ Structuralism The sign Language as a system of oppositions ± Edward Sapir (1884 – 1939) ± Leonard Bloom±eld (1847 – 1949)
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American Structuralism ± Break linguistic entities down into smaller units. (Atomism) ± Sentences consist of phrases. ± Phrases consist of phrases and/or words. (Immediate Constituent Analysis) ± Words consist of morphemes. ± Morphemes consist of phonemes. ± Phonemes consist of distinctive features.
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Structural Analysis ± [two guys] [walked into a bar] ± [two guys] [walked [into [a bar]]] ± [[two] [guy+s]] [[walk+ed] [[into] [[a] [bar]]]] ± /tu gaj+z w O k+t Intu @ ba:r/ ± - SYLL - VOICE - LABIAL - CONT ... +SYLL +VOICE +BACK +HIGH ... - SYLL +VOICE - LABIAL - CONT ... +SYLL +VOICE +BACK - HIGH ... - SYLL +VOICE - LABIAL +CONT ... - SYLL +VOICE - LABIAL +CONT ... ...
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Zellig Harris (1909 – 1992) ± ASem it ic ist ± Pioneered transition probabilities as key to morpheme boundary detection ± Father of discourse analysis ± Worked in Bloom±eldian tradition ± Colleagues at U of Pennsylvania: Nelson Goodman, Morton White, Nathan Fine ± Distributional analysis: method of substitution ± Discovered transformations ± Teacher of Noam Chomsky
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Avram Noam Chomsky ± Studied with Harris at UPenn (BA: 1949, MA: 1951, PhD: 1955) ± Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory - 1100+ page ms. widely circulated but never published until 1975 ± Syntactic Structures: written as a textbook for intro courseat MIT ± Most inFuential ±gure in modern linguistics, bar none ± Inventor of modern generative grammar ± InFuential critique of Behaviorism ± Changed direction of ±eld: Linguistics as Cognitive Science ± Inventor of ²ormal Language Theory
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Formal Languages ± ± N ( onterminals ) , T ( erminals ) , S , Rules ² where X * denotes the set of all strings (sentences) made up of elements of X; α , β , γ
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This document was uploaded on 05/28/2011.

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Sag1 - English Auxiliaries and the Chomskyan Revolution...

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