Sag2 - What Auxiliaries Tell us about the Mind Ivan A. Sag...

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What Auxiliaries Tell us about the Mind Ivan A. Sag Stanford University
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Thesis 1: The Mind is a Transformational Machine ± English is not a Finite-State language (i.e. there is no Regular Grammar that can generate English) ± The generalizations we know about English auxiliaries transcend the capabilities of Context-Free Phrase Structure Grammars (CFGs) ± The existence of discountinuous dependencies and abstract generalizations in the auxiliary system require transformational operations.
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Thesis 2: Transformations are Structure-Sensitive Operations ± Ts are not merely string operations. ± Ts don’t count things. ± Ts manipulate structures in ways defned by Universal Grammar (human biology) ± [[The man] who is speaking] is their Friend. ± Is the man who is speaking their Friend? ± *Is the man who speaking is their Friend?
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Feature Decomposition of Grammatical Categories 1 ± As early as the mid 1960s, Chomsky had suggested replacing familiar syntactic categories (S, NP, VP, P) with feature bundles, e.g. ± +V - N ² , ± +N - V ² , ± +V - N ² , ± - N - V ² ± V+ N - BAR 2 , N+ V - BAR 2 , N - BAR 1 , N - V - BAR 0 ± Widely adopted in TG and elsewhere.
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Feature Decomposition of Grammatical Categories 2 ± X-Theory ± Head Feature Principle: The category of a mother is the same as the category of the head daughter. ± Widely adopted in TG and elsewhere.
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v + n - bar 2 (=S) v - n + bar 2 two guys v + n - bar 1 (=VP) v + n - bar 0 walked v - n - bar 1 (=PP) v - n - bar 0 into v - n + bar 2 (=NP) aba r
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Come the Revolution ± In 1982, Geo f rey Pullum and Gerald Gazdar demonstrated that all arguments against the context-freeness of natural language published prior to then are either mathematically Fawed or based on incorrect assessments of the empirical data. ± ±irst C±G of English Auxiliary System: Gazdar, Pullum, Sag (1982). ± This led to the framework of Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar as one of several well-developed alternatives to Transformational Grammar. (see http://lingo.stanford.edu/sag/L221a/syll/wk1.html) ± And then to Head-Driven PSG (HPSG), and then to the kind of Construction Grammar I’ll use here (Sign-Based).
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Feature Decomposition of Grammatical Categories 3 ± Also in the mid-1960s, Chomsky suggested providing words with features specifying their combinatoric potential. ± Cf. Ajdukiewicz 1935 ± lexeme valence List Example laugh ± NP ² Kim laughs walk ± NP (, PP) ² Kim walked (into a bar) love ± NP, NP ² Kim loved Lee give ± NP, NP, NP ² They gave Pat a watch give ± NP, NP, PP[ to ] ² They gave a watch to Pat keep ± NP, VP[ prp ] ² They kept coming continue ± NP, VP[ inf ] ² I continue to doubt
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v + n - val ±² v - n + two guys v + n - ± NP ² v + n - ± NP,PP ² walked v - n - v - n - ± NP ²
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Sag2 - What Auxiliaries Tell us about the Mind Ivan A. Sag...

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