Chapter 6 gene interaction - Chapter 6 Gene Interaction...

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Chapter 6 Gene Interaction Suggested Problems: #1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 23, 26, 28, 33, 41, 51
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Outline: 1.Different types of interactions between alleles of the same gene. (variations on dominance) 1.Interactions between different genes.
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Mechanisms of dominance: Mutations of haplosufficient genes are recessive
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Mechanisms of Dominance 1. haploinsufficiency wild-type mutant destroys the active site of the protein tetramer 2. dominant interfering action of mutant on wild-type protein 3. mutation affects ability of the protein to be regulated active protein phosphorylated inactive protein P mutant protein cannot be phosphorylated, therefore cannot be inactivated appropriately always active 4. loss of heterozygosity (strong predisposition to cancer)
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Loss of Heterozygosity * illustrates how dominance can be arbitrary, depending on how you look at it (molecular level vs. organismal level)
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Incomplete dominance A/A = dark pink A/a = light pink a/a = white
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Codominance expression of both allelic phenotypes in a heterozygote I A and I B are codominant i is recessive to I A and I B
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Allelic series: Seven alleles and their interactions in leaf patterning of clover
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A dominant lethal allele, yellow coat Yellow x yellow 2/3 yellow, 1/3 wild-type Yellow x wild-type ½ yellow, ½ wild-type
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Dominant lethal alleles eg. Manx cat M L /M = tailless M L /M L = lethal 2:1 ratio (heterozygotes: homozygous wild-type) is recovered many alleles are sublethal (a reduced number of homozygotes are recovered compared to expected ratios)
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Interactions between genes: Most traits are created through complex pathways: Biosynthetic pathways Signal transduction pathways Developmental pathways
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The colors of peppers are determined by the interaction of several genes Y allele: eliminate chlorophyll (y=green color) R = red r = yellow c1 and c2 (2 genes) decrease carotinoids, causing lighter shades (brown=green + red) (orange = decreased shade of red)
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Archibald Garrod: 1909 published “Inborn Errors of Metabolism”
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