Chapter 8 RNA

Chapter 8 RNA - Chapter 8 RNA: Transcription and Processing...

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Chapter 8 RNA: Transcription and Processing Suggested problems: #2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14
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The Central Dogma: Information can be transferred from: DNA to DNA by Replication DNA to RNA by Transcription RNA to protein by Translation
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Structure of RNA vs DNA: 4 4 5’ 5’ 4’ 4’ 3’ 3’ 2’ 2’ 1’ 1’ Unstable Single stranded Very stable Usually double stranded
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What is RNA made of? No methyl group
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How does genetic information transfer from DNA to protein? Volkin and Astrachan (noticed burst of RNA synthesis after phage infection) Pulse-chase experiment: Pulse Feed bacteria radioactive uracil (U, present in RNA but not DNA) This labels all new RNA being synthesized Chase Wash away the radioactive U and replace it with “cold” U Now all the newly synthesized RNA will not be labeled The RNA recovered shortly after the pulse is labeled, but that recovered longer after the chase is unlabeled, indicating that the RNA has a very short lifetime
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Eukaryotic transcription takes place in the nucleus.
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Eukaryotic pulse-chase experiment: label is initially in the nucleus but later in the cytoplasm RNA is therefore a good candidate as an intermediate between DNA and protein because it is transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where proteins are synthesized
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Eukaryotic pulse-chase experiment: label is initially in the nucleus but later in the cytoplasm
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Classes of RNA: 1. Messenger RNA (mRNA): intermediate molecule for information transfer between DNA and protein = code for proteins 2. Functional RNAs : RNA has a function on its own (not for coding a protein) a. Transfer RNA (tRNA): functions during translation to bring amino acids to the mRNA to build the polypeptide chain b. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): functions during translation to guide the assembly of the amino acid chain c. Small nuclear RNA (snRNA): involved in splicing of mRNAs d. microRNAs (miRNAs): involved in gene regulation e. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs): inhibit viruses and transposons
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Chapter 8 RNA - Chapter 8 RNA: Transcription and Processing...

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