Chapter 13 Genomics

Chapter 13 Genomics - Chapter 13 Genomics Suggested problems#1 2 4 21 How are genomes sequenced-small pieces are cloned into a vector and amplified

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–8. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 13 Genomics Suggested problems: #1, 2, 4, 21
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
How are genomes sequenced?
Background image of page 2
-small pieces are cloned into a vector, and amplified in bacteria -primers complementary to common sequence in the vector is used to prime the sequencing reaction - “inserts” can be sequenced from both ends
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
“Sequence Reads” each sequencing reaction (called a “sequence read”) gives approximately 600 bp of sequence automated fluorescence sequencing is the current state of the art current machines can do 96 reads every 3 hrs (768/day) each region of DNA is “read” at least 10 times independently to prevent errors for the human genome (3 billion bp at 10X coverage), 50 million successful sequence reads are required
Background image of page 4
Problem with repetitive DNA frequently repetitive regions are longer than a sequence read therefore many contigs “end” in common repeat sequences can cause erroneous alignment of contigs Another problem: some regions may be missing from the “libraries” of clones used, possibly because certain regions may be toxic to bacteria used to amplify it
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Two approaches to sequencing a genome 1. Whole genome shotgun approach: -do lots of sequence reads from whole genome libraries, without any knowledge of where each clone maps in the genome -assemble into a whole genome sequence by alignment of overlapping clones 1. Ordered clone approach (opposite order as shotgun approach) -individual clones are ordered and oriented to completely cover all the chromosomes (called clone contigs) -vectors with large size inserts such as BACs, are used so the ordering is easier -each BAC is individually sequenced (by shotgun approach)
Background image of page 6
Sequencing the human genome in 1990 our government launched the Human Genome Project (HGP) it was expected to take 15 years and cost over 3 billion dollars goals of the project: 1. map all of the human genes 2. construct a detailed physical map of the entire human genome 3. determine the nucleotide sequences of all 24 human chromosomes mapping progress in the HGP was excellent -by 1992, RFLP maps of the genome were available -by 1995, they had a map with molecular markers every 200 kb on average
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 8
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 05/28/2011 for the course BIO 220 taught by Professor Dr.leatherman during the Spring '10 term at N. Colorado.

Page1 / 19

Chapter 13 Genomics - Chapter 13 Genomics Suggested problems#1 2 4 21 How are genomes sequenced-small pieces are cloned into a vector and amplified

This preview shows document pages 1 - 8. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online