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Chapter 16 Large-scale chromosomal changes

Chapter 16 Large-scale chromosomal changes - Chapter 16...

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Chapter 16 Large-scale chromosomal changes A person with Trisomy 21 Suggested problems: #2, 3, 6, 8, 10, 13, 23, 32, 33, 35
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What happens when mistakes occur in meiosis?
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Changes in chromosome number abberant euploidy : changes in whole chromosome sets vs. aneuploidy : changes in parts of chromosome sets euploid: an organism with multiples of a basic chromosome set polyploid: an organism with more than two chromosome sets eg triploid, tetraploid, pentaploid monoploid: a normally diploid organism with only one chromosome set
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Monoploidy very rare, because of the “genetic load” that normally diploid organisms carry (genetic load=range of deleterious recessive mutations carried by an individual, usually masked in a diploid state) if monoploids do develop, they cannot complete meiosis, and are sterile example: male bees, wasps, and ants are monoploid unfertilized eggs develop by parthenogenesis
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Polyploidy very common in plants, very rare in animals polyploid plants are often physically larger, but still have the same proportions as their diploid relatives plants with higher numbers of chromosomes tend to have an even number of chromosomes because of ancestral polyploidization diploid tetraploid
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Autopolyploids vs. Allopolyploids autopolyploid: multiple chromosome sets originated from within one species allopolyploid: multiple chromosome sets originated from two or more different species
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Autopolyploids
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