notes - I. Powered flight A. Occurs in 3 classes of...

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I. Powered flight A. Occurs in 3 classes of vertebrates 1. Reptiles- pterosaurs 2. Birds 3. Mammals-bats B. Mechanics of flight 1. Organism is denser than air- must generate lift to counter gravity a. Structures providing lift also must provide propulsion- dual role, conflicting (contrast with jet) b. Weight- should be reduced to minimize E needed for lift and propulsion c. Body- stream lined to reduce drag d. Essentially a S/V problem- wing SA scales with mass (or volume) 2. Generation of lift- occurs when air foil (=wing) is placed at a positive angle of attack to direction of moving air stream a. Improved by having camber and streamlined surface b. Lift increased as angle of attack increased up to ~15 o - greater < stalling due to loss of laminar flow unless compensated with wing slot= 2 nd air foil placed above leading edge laminar flow 1) Birds= alula- acts as stabilizer 2) Bats=thumb 3) Pterosaurs-?- 3 free digits c. From Bernoulli’s theorem- air passing over dorsal travels further and faster lower
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notes - I. Powered flight A. Occurs in 3 classes of...

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