Lecture_3_29 - Overview and Review Spend a lot of time...

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1 Overview and Review Spend a lot of time talking around one central theme Basic properties of life
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2 The Three Branches of Life eukaryotes prokaryotes The Cell Theory All living organisms are composed of cells. Cells are the basic structural and functional unit of all living things. All cells come from pre-existing cells by cell division. Cells contain hereditary information. All cells are basically the same in chemical composition.
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3 Basic Cell Composition Eukaryotes Prokaryotes Plant Cell Animal Cell Photosynthetic bacterium Non-photosynthetic bacterium Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Common to both: – Plasma membrane, DNA, RNA, protein, genetic code – Mechanism of metabolism, energy production – Protein synthesis, modification, and transportation Only in Eukaryotes: – Cell are generally larger; can be multicellular – Have nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles and cytoskeleton – DNA is packed into chromosomes – Sexual reproduction
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4 Eukaryotic cell is a membrane system The nucleus is the largest organelle in a eukaryotic cell. It contains a double membrane. Mitochondrion and chloroplast are energy (ATP) conversion organelles These are also membrane bound organelles What is meant by the chloroplast and mitochondrial genome?
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5 Evolution of the eukaryotic cell Approximate Timeline – Earth ~4.5 bya – Prokaryotes ~3.8 bya – Eukaryotes ~2.0 bya – Multicellular ~1.0 bya What do you notice about the chain of events? Model Organisms in Molecular Biology How to choose the right one
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6 Choosing the right model organism for the job Depends on the type of research questions being investigated. Length of embryonic development and life cycle Size of organism and ease of lab growth Ease of manipulation Experimental techniques Size of genome and number of chromosomes Cost/price Etc… Bacteria Free-living, single cell organism (prokaryotes) Single circular chromosome not housed in a nucleus Genome (complete set of DNA): 4.6 Mb Proteome (complete set of protein): ~4300 proteins Best studied bacteria is E. coli – Doubles every 20 min. under proper condition – Powerful genetics many techniques available to manipulate genes
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7 • Bacteria are internally regulated they produce the enzymes they need to grow in whatever media they are cultured in • Bacteria can grow in liquid media or on a solid surface, the bacteria to the right are growing on agar plates • Fit many in a small area • Viruses: Viruses: – DNA or RNA genomes plus DNA or RNA genomes plus protective outer coat protective outer coat – Parasite: dependent on host Parasite: dependent on host for proteins, energy and for proteins, energy and replication replication – Viruses are able to infect
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Lecture_3_29 - Overview and Review Spend a lot of time...

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