Women in Ancient Philosophy

Women in Ancient Philosophy - Women in Ancient Philosophy...

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Unformatted text preview: Women in Ancient Philosophy An Overview Copyright 2006, Sean William Doyle Copyright Etymology of “Philosophy” The term “philosophy” is derived from the The combination of two Greek words: combination – Philein (Philos) – “love” – Sophia – “wisdom” The term “philosopher” is believed to have The first been used by the Greek mathematician Pythagoras (ca. 581 BCE – ca. 507 BCE) Pythagoras Copyright 2006, Sean William Doyle Copyright Pythagoreanism Founded by Pythagoras (570 BCE? – 495 Founded BCE?) BCE?) Doctrine of Metempsychosis – the soul is Doctrine immortal and is reborn in both human and animal incarnations animal Principle of Harmonia - harmony Principle of Sophrosyne – balance Copyright 2006, Sean William Doyle Copyright Pythagoreanism (continued) Mystical Power of Number – “number is the wisest thing” – “the most beautiful, harmony” – veneration of the tetractys (the numbers 1 to 4) Doctrine of the Harmony of the Spheres – Doctrine the heavens move in accord with number and produce music and Copyright 2006, Sean William Doyle Copyright Female Pythagoreans of Crotona Theano of Crotona – wife of Pythagoras – On the Immortality of the Soul – Advice to Women “Better to be on a runaway horse than to be a woman Better who does not reflect” who Myia – daughter of Pythagoras – Myia’s Letter to Phyllis Copyright 2006, Sean William Doyle Copyright Aspasia of Miletus (died ca. 401 Aspasia BCE) BCE) She was a hetairae, a courtesan who was She hetairae courtesan skilled in the arts of music, poetry, dance, and lovemaking, as well as Pericles’ mistress and a member of his philosophic circle circle She authored a work called Epitaphia She Epitaphia – “Plutarch on Aspasia” from Plutarch’s Life of Plutarch Pericles Pericles – Plato’s Menexenus Plato’s Menexenus Copyright 2006, Sean William Doyle Copyright Female Pupils of Plato According to Diogenes Laertius, among the According mainly male pupils at Plato’s Academy were two female pupils, Lasthenia of Mantinea and Axiothea of Phlius and Copyright 2006, Sean William Doyle Copyright Hipparchia the Cynic Cynicism - an ethics whose goal of autarky Cynicism autarky (“self-sufficiency”) is achieved by the fulfillment of basic material needs and asceticism asceticism She was the wife of Crates (fl. Ca. 328 BCE She – 325 BCE), a noted Cynic 325 “Hipparchia the Cynic” from Diogenes Hipparchia Laertius Laertius Copyright 2006, Sean William Doyle Copyright Female Pythagoreans Aesara of Lucania – “On Human Nature” Women bore the responsibility for creating harmonia (order and Women harmonia justice) in the home and men had the same responsibility in the city city Perictione I – mother of Plato – “On the Harmony of Women” Theano II – “Letter from Theano II to Rhodope” Perictione II – “Sophias” Copyright 2006, Sean William Doyle Copyright Musonius Rufus (30 CE – 101 CE) He was a male Stoic philosopher who He supported the education of women in his writings writings “On the Education of Women” Copyright 2006, Sean William Doyle Copyright Asclepigenia of Athens The daughter of Plutarch the Younger, she The taught at the Platonic Academy in Athens in the late 4th and early 5th centuries the Neo-Platonism, a Hellenistic version of Neo-Platonism, Plato’s thought which emphasized mystical union with the One, was the prevailing philosophy at the Academy philosophy “Asclepigenia’s Influence” from Marinus of Asclepigenia’s Flavia Neopolis’ Life of Proclus Life Copyright 2006, Sean William Doyle Copyright Hypatia of Alexandria (4th to 5th Century CE) Century The daughter of Theon, she was an The accomplished mathematician and scholar, as well as a Neo-Platonist who followed the writings of Plotinus writings She had teaching residences in Athens and She Alexandria and was director of the library of Alexandria Alexandria “The Murder of Hypatia” from Sozomenus The Socrates’ Church History Church Copyright 2006, Sean William Doyle Copyright Food for Thought Why were so many ancient female Why philosophers attracted to Pythagoreanism? philosophers Why were women typically discouraged Why from pursuing philosophy in the ancient world? world? Why were some ancient female Why philosophers attracted to Neo-Platonism? philosophers How would you generally characterize the How status of women in ancient philosophy? status Copyright 2006, Sean William Doyle Copyright ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/01/2011 for the course HUM 120 taught by Professor Seandoyle during the Spring '11 term at Moraine Valley Community College.

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