GRK HRSPG11 - © Daniel Dalet / 500 km 300 mi 6...

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Unformatted text preview: © Daniel Dalet / 500 km 300 mi 6 1. __________ 2. __________ 7 3. __________ 1 4. __________ 8 5. __________ 6. __________ 9 4 2 7. __________ 10 8. __________ 5 Bodies of water 3 9. __________ 10. __________ You will be tested on these again later in the semester. The countries/bodies of water will remain the same but the numbers will change. 1 1. 2. their vision of humanity most like ours— believed they had some control of their destiny • 3. greeks put MAN at the center of the universe • 2 Legacy of the ancient Greeks for the Western world: We start with the Greeks because • A Whirlwind Tour of Greek History and had moral responsibility for their actions 4. 5. 6. 3 4 Curling! Not an ancient Greek sport! • • • were held every 4 years in August water droplets, called “pebble,” are sprayed onto the ice. The friction between the stone and pebble causes the stone to turn to the inside or outside, or “curl.” • • nearly 3000 years old played on an area of ice 150 ft. x 16 ft with a stone and brooms • The Olympics dates back to early 16th century Scotland sweeping helps the stone travel farther and straighter • important part of religious festival • first Olympics—only one event—race won by a cook named Coroebus • prizes • Early Olympic events 5 6 Hellen—mythical patriarch of all Greeks Greece • in his honor, Greeks are called Hellenes; their land, Hellas • son of Deucalion and Pyrrha • his sons, Dorus, Xuthus, and Aeolus are ancestors of the 3 major Greek tribes: Dorians, Ionians, Aeolians Greeks invented the idea of the West as a distinct region 7 8 Mycenaean Civilization 1900-1100 BCE The Mycenaeans are a Bronze Age civilization • What do we mean by the term “civilization?” • What makes a group of people a civilization? Greek culture begins in Aegean Sea region 9 10 Linear B -dates from 1400-1200 BCE Mycenaeans • lived on the Peloponnesus of Greece • ruled entire peninsula by about 1500 BCE 11 Michael Ventris deciphered Linear B in 1952 12 Homer writes about Mycenaean time period and society in the Iliad and the Odyssey The Iliad and the Odyssey relate events before, during, and after the Trojan War —a battle between Greeks and the city of Troy in the 12th or 13th c. BCE But did it rea!y happen? Both Troy and Mycenae were discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in the 19th century, though his work at Troy is surrounded by controversy. 13 14 City of Mycenae Lion Gate Lion Gate 15 16 What does this architecture tell you about the Mycenaeans? 17 18 Mycenaean culture ended around 1100 BCE due to: —political/economic instability of trading partners —raids from the north —political infighting —constant warfare Mycenaean warriors would often be buried in full armor— what does this suggest? 19 20 The Bronze Age ends Dark Ages 1100-800 BCE • no writing • no interaction • small settlements • widespread poverty • no trade • simpler art —but changes were occurring... 21 Remaining Mycenaeans fled to coast of Asia Minor (later called Ionia) 22 Weapons were now being made out of iron rather than bronze. What is the advantage of iron? 23 24 Archaic Age 800-479 BCE 1. Polis—city-state politically united self-ruling • independent of neighbors • oligarchic government • citizenship for all free residents—unusual at this time • • Acropolis (above) and agora (below) of Athens small size similar physical layout: —acropolis —agora • Repopulation during the Dark Age created demographic conditions under which new political forms could emerge. • 25 26 Sparta The polis emerges due to: • geography: • human nature: 27 28 Sparta Sparta Oligarchic government Military 1. Council of Elders —2 kings —the ‘few’ most powerful military force in the Archaic Age • Perioeci 2. assembly of free adult males • Helots 3. 5 overseers 29 30 Spartan women Sparta • • required to defend husband’s property • 31 could own property • • training meant to create obedient soldiers—the honorable occupation in Sparta taught to read and write • necessary to keep army always at the ready physically fit • Discipline lived in relative freedom could choose another husband, if necessary Why give women all this freedom? 32 Athens Athens • Ionian city state northeast of Sparta • known as the artistic, educational and cultural center of ancient Greece • birthplace of democracy • What is a democracy? 33 Social/economic instability in Athens at this time. Why? Athens • 34 594 BCE —Athenian statesman Solon revises law: as early as 7th c. BCE 1. abolishes debt • • free adult males had right to attend assemblies where 9 rulers (archons) were elected 2. repeals laws that makes slaves out of those who fall into debt however, this is more “rule by the few”—government still dominated by the elite 4. creates upward mobility 35 3. allows free, male property owners to participate in government “I have given the common people sufficient power to assure them of dignity, and...protected those of great wealth and influence. I took a firm stand, holding my stout shield over both classes, so that neither should win any unfair advantage.” Solon 36 Cleisthenes establishes democracy in 508 BCE Factions fight over how Athens should be governed. Not everyone likes the move toward democracy... • Athenian government is now based on direct participation • districts mixed together (rich/poor) • Cleisthenes, principal founder of democracy promises dramatics reform if made ruler • Council of 500/Assembly • Isagoras....................Athenian ruler (and Cleisthenes’ • voting rival) who favors oligarchy • juries • Spartans...................the foreign army backing Isagoras, driven out by Athenians 2 things to remember here: Sardis 37 38 Persian Empire c. 500 BCE Herodotus • known as the “Father of History” • first person to practice historical writing • travelled extensively • wrote the Histories, 9 books discussing various cultures and the Greco-Persian wars There are still factions in Athens opposed to democracy 39 40 Terms of Alliance between Athens and Persia Ionia Cybele • symbolic tokens of earth and water • loyalty, inferiority, submission...wait...what? Darius I 41 42 Battle of Marathon 490 BCE “Sir, remember the Athenians.” @!&#*!! 43 44 Battle of Marathon: Xerxes’ invasion and battle at Thermopylae • Xerxes invades with • 490 BCE—Persian troops land Thermopylae thousands of troops at Marathon Persian army Hellespont • Spartans block narrow mountain pass at Thermopylae (using geography to their advantage) • Estimate: 9000 Greeks vs. 20,000 Persians • Athenian commanders needed • to act fast—why? • dealing with Persian archers hoplite (Greek soldier) • Spartans betrayed by local Greek • outcome of battle: • Why was it so important to destroy the Persian naval fleet? • the term ‘marathon’ • Darius’ reaction: purpose: to delay Persians while Greek navy fights Persian fleet 45 • Greek naval commander Themistocles manuevers Persians into bay 46 Leonidas—Spartan king • Xerxes returns to Persia; leaves Battle of Salamis infantry in Greece— • 479: battle of Plataea—Greek • Greeks again use infantry defeats Persian geography to their advantage —Battle of Mycale—Greek navy defeats Persians near Ionia • outcome • Persian invasion ends but hostilities continue for another 30 years • Why is the outcome of this Xerxes Trireme 47 war so important? 48 Hellenic (or Golden) Age 479-323 BCE Athenian a!iance The Delian League The Peloponnesian League • included most of the • begins with defeat of Persians • failure of alliance between • Spartan a!iance island and coastal states around the northern and eastern shores of the Aegean Sea. • better navy Sparta and Athens alliances form along new lines 49 • independent states of • better army the Peloponnese and central Greece, and the sea power Corinth. The purpose of these a#iances was to push remaining Persians out of Greek territory 50 • Delian League drives Persians out of the Aegean • Athens becomes richer, more powerful • Athens referred to as an “empire” by other Greek Athens and allies (Delian League) Sparta and allies (Pelopponesian League) 51 states—Is this a compliment? Why or why not? 52 Pericles 495-429 BC • • • • • called “the first citizen of Athens” influential statesman and general very popular with ordinary citizens changed laws on citizenship promoted the arts and architecture—started a building program that included the Parthenon 53 Peloponnesian War 431-404 BCE • 457-447 BCE Sparta and Athens fight. • Pericles develops the 30 Years Peace, which breaks down after 14 years • This leads to... 54 The Long Walls fought between Athens and Sparta, and their respective allies for 27 (!) years. Most of what we know comes from Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian W ar —first written political and moral analysis of a nation’s war policies 55 56 Pericles’ Plan Despite Athens’ early losses, the war rages for another 25 years...when Athens finally surrenders to Sparta • evacuate countryside • bring citizens inside the walls of Athens • avoid land battles with Spartan infantry • attack Spartan territory by sea • Athens will win war of attrition as they have more money and men • After Athens’ defeat, first Sparta, Thebes, and other city states fought for control, but these power struggles weakened the city states and made them easy targets for invaders.... Weaknesses of the plan: 1. Athenian attachment to countryside 2. living conditions in the city 3. no obvious successes to lift morale 57 58 Macedonia Philip II • • • • Philip II 59 expanded Macedonia conquered city states in central Greece formed League of Corinth intended to attack Persia 60 Alexander Alexander • succeeds his father at age 20 • Thebes tries to take over Macedonia....oops one of the most successful military commanders in history • undefeated in battle • conquered most of ancient world • planned to move toward Arabia, North Africa • 61 62 Hellenistic Age 323-146 BCE Alexander’s Empire • period from the death of Alexander to Rome’s takeover of Macedonian Greece. • Called Hellenistic due to the role Greece played in development • combines Hellenic and eastern Mediterranean traditions—this world is dominated by large metropolitan centers and kingdoms rather than small city states 63 64 Alexander’s territory is taken over by his generals Macedonia—Antigonus Persian Empire—Seleucus Egypt—Ptolemy Macedonia Conquered by Rome 148 BC Persian Empire Conquered by Rome 65 BC Egypt Conquered by Rome 31 BC 65 67 66 ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/01/2011 for the course HUM 101 taught by Professor Neubeck-connor during the Spring '11 term at Moraine Valley Community College.

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