MEDIEVALhist11 - Once the Roman Empire fell Western Europe...

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Unformatted text preview: Once the Roman Empire fell, Western Europe went through a long, turbulent period that came to be known as the “Dark Ages,” which lasted from the 6th to the 10th century. It was not as “dark” as the term might suggest, however. Life was short and difficult, invasions were common, and education and the arts were put aside in favor of mere survival. However, leaders such as Charlemagne worked toward improving civilization and educating Europe, and the papacy served to give the population hope in a dangerous time. Medieval History and Religion After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, 3 new civilizations emerged: —Byzantine Empire —Medieval West —Islamic civilization 1 Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire 476-1453 2 The Eastern (Byzantine) Empire was a fusion of Greek and Roman culture (in purple, circa 800 CE) • its capital, Constantinople, was founded on the ancient Greek city of Byzantium by Constantine. • the people called themselves Romans and the empire “Nova Roma” • spoke Greek rather than Latin • Copied and preserved classical art, literature and Roman law Capital: Constantinople • Empire was Christian Advantages • built on high peninsula • situated between Europe and Asia • bridge between East and West • crossroads of Europe—center of trade routes • By 800 CE, the empire was prosperous • The Byzantine Empire was one of the most powerful economic, cultural, and military forces in Europe in its 1000 year history 3 Constantine and advanced. Food was abundant, infrastructures such as sewer systems were put in place, and high taxes paid for an effective government. As a result, the empire could support a large population (as many as 1 million people lived in Constantinople at its height.) 4 One of the most successful (and controversial) Byzantine emperors was Justinian, who reigned from 525-565 with his strong willed and intelligent wife, Theodora Under Justinian, the Empire made great strides in law and architecture, and Justinian gained back some of the territory lost during the fall of the Rome. However, in his effort to reunite East and West, he drained the Byzantine treasury on long, expensive wars, both in the West, and with the Persians to the East. These wars made all more vulnerable to later Arab invasions. Byzantine Empire survived as long as it did (about 1000 years) due to: Strong Military • relatively few soldiers—only 140,000 by the 10th century, but well trained, due to money provide through taxes Theodora was the daughter of a circus bear trainer, and was a dancer and actress. Justinian met her, fell in love, and ultimately married her in 523 (quite scandalous!) The new Empress, however, proved to be a valuable, ruthless ally and intelligent advisor. She also changed laws to improve the lives of women. Theodora was one of the most influential women of the Middle Ages. Greek Orthodox Church—an offshoot of the Roman Catholic Church —Greek: from the ancient Greek city of Byzantium —Orthodox: believed they alone represented correct doctrine 5 The Clash between the Greek Orthodox Church (East) vs. Church of Rome (West) Greek Orthodox Church • rooted in Greek philosophy • Leader is known as Patriarch • Speak Greek • Priests can marry Church of Rome • based on Roman law • Led by Pope • Speak Latin • Priests remain celibate Other problems: 1. Roman Church taxed heavily by Constantinople 2. differences of theological interpretation 3. failure of Byzantine emperors to protect papal territories from invasions Iconoclastic Controversy—Greek Orthodox church views devotion to religious images as blasphemous. Popes disagreed, arguing that icons inspired people to pray and respect holy people. Byzantine Patriarch Leo III bans icons in 732—ban lasts over 100 years. For centuries, both churches had been growing in separate and distinct ways until they came to maintain completely separate existences.By 1054, a schism (break) occurs, ending all ties 7 between the two. • Faith took the place of a common nationality 6 Byzantine Empire falls in 1453 • Constantinople was known as “Queen of Cities”—everyone envied the empire’s wealth • the Empire survived as long as it did (about 1000 years) due to a strong, well trained military, and the Greek Orthodox Church (faith took the place of a common nationality.) • The city was attacked by Normans, Vikings, Venetians, and ultimately fell to the Turks (Ottoman Empire) in 1453 • many citizens fled to Europe (especially Italy), perhaps fueling the Renaissance, as they brought with them much of the ancient Greek culture and heritage they had preserved. 8 Meanwhile, in the West.... 3 Germanic tribes ruled most of the old Western Roman Empire: After the fall of the Western Roman Empire (476) life in the West regresses. • Europe fragmented into many small states ruled by local leaders • lower standard of living • farming—main source of income • barter system • very little security 9 • Visigoths: Spain • Ostrogoths: Italy and southern Germany • Franks: France and western Germany 10 The Franks—confederacy of Germanic tribes from area around modern France, Belgium, Western Germany Clovis conquers Gaul and began centralizing rule and converting tribes to Catholic Christianity. •In 751, Pepin the Short gave central Italy to the pope, known as “The Donation of Pepin.” • Pepin deposed the last Merovingian king and became the first Carolingian ruler • This benefited both parties— —gives Frankish kings legitimacy —gives the papacy more authority —links Church of Rome’s destiny with Western Europe Clotilda, his wife Pepin is famous for another reason.... Clovis’ descendants are known as Merovingians. Their power declines by the 7th century when another family takes over... 11 12 Charlemagne’s empire, 814 Pepin is Charlemagne’s father. Charlemagne • became King of the Franks in 768 • most powerful ruler in Western Europe • Franks fought for 30 years under Charlemagne in Germany, Italy, Spain, Hungary • colonized and converted most of these territories to Christianity —as a result, Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne “Carolus Augustus,” Emperor of the Romans in 800— “church and state” now linked What’s the point of so many military campaigns? In other words, why was everyone continua#y fighting? 13 The Carolingian Renaissance— Charlemagne revives the humanities 14 • Charlemagne founded a school at his palace in Medieval Liberal Arts (based on subjects studied in ancient Greece) • brought educated men to his court including grammar Aachen, Germany Modern Liberal Arts programs also include: literature Alcuin of York, who became head of the school rhetoric Charlemagne’s goals logic —create an educated class of people arithmetic —develop literacy for all geometry —increase learning—logic, math, music, etc. from which the liberal arts developed languages philosophy history mathematics science music astronomy —reform clergy —reform texts (esp. church texts) —learning would also lead to better understanding of Christianity Alcuin 15 Why are they called “liberal” arts? 16 When in the course of human ewheninthecourseo-umane vents it becomes necessary ventsitbecomesnecessaryfo for one people to dissolve the ronepeopletodissolvethepo political bands which have cliticalbandswhichhaveconn onnected them with another aectedthemwithanotherand nd to assume among the ptoassumeamongthepowers owers of the earth, the softheearththeseparateande eparate and equal station to qualstationtowhichthelaws which the Laws of Nature and oofnatureandofnature’sgode f Nature’s God entitle them, antitlethemadecentrespectt decent respect to the otheopinionsofmankindreq opinions of mankind requires tuiresthattheyshoulddeclare hat they should declare the thecauseswhichimpelthemt causes which impel them to otheseparation the separation. •Charlemagne also created a •During his reign, Charlemagne unified Western Europe scriptorium—where texts could be copied and then distributed throughout the Empire • but did not create “Carolingian miniscule” —standing army —system of taxation —single code of law • all subsequent Western •invasions made the empire increasingly • developed a form of writing called fragile handwriting follows this tradition •Administrative responsibilities fell to Charlemagne’s efforts resulted in: local aristocracy • improved competence in Latin • expanded use of written • these circumstances bring about a political and military system known as feudalism documents • promoted the liberal arts Vikings 17 18 Feudalism • Feudalism involved the exchange of land for military service between a lord and a knight • Vassals were cavalry warriors— —in return for land, a knight promised an oath of loyalty and service and therefore owed his lord a certain number of fighting days per year —the land included manor houses and serfs Vassals make similar oaths of loyalty in exchange for land or protection • In an unstable period, feudalism knights—also known as chevaliers • the knight’s conduct defined by a strict code of behavior known as chivalry • A knight must have —courage —honor —loyalty —honesty —respect —bravery —gallantry—especially toward women provided a basic form of local government and law and order 19 20 What did they eat in the Middle Ages? Triangle of feudalism (It depended on who you were.) Peasants and serfs: Barley in the form of: 1. Barley bread 2. Boiled barley 3. Barley porridge 4. Barley soup—sometimes with cabbage and onions 5. Barley ale Pope King Lords Knights Protein rarely available. Beans were added when available. Vassals percentage of population? Peasants, including those that were serfs Wealthy landowners: 1. Meat of all kinds: venison, pork, chicken, peacock, fish 2.eggs, butter, cheese 3. onions, leeks, cabbage, garlic, turnips, parsnips, peas and beans 4. heavy sauces and exotic spices 5. Wheat bread 6. pudding 7. wine the most common utensil 22 21 Medieval Christianity The Roman Catholic Church Why “Roman” and “Catholic?” Medieval Christianity The Roman Catholic Church’s spiritual and secular authority and power sprang from —Peter and Paul —“Pontifex Maximus ” (chief priest of Roman Empire) became “Pope” —Constantine’s conversion and support of Christianity —subsequent emperors’ support —papal alliance with powerful Western rulers —work of missionaries, monks, other clergy —multiple sources of revenue that the 7 sacraments were the only way to heaven. —belief shared by most of the medieval population: the church held the keys to the kingdom of heaven and provided the only way to salvation..... 23 •In 1215, Pope Innocent III decreed • Followers must adhere to moral code and participate in these rituals • Baptism • Holy Communion • Penance (Confession) • Confirmation • Marriage • Anointing of the Sick/Last Rites • Holy Orders (Ordination for priesthood) A Christian’s conduct on earth determined whether his soul went to Heaven, He# or Purgatory. 24 The breakup of Carolingian Empire left Church with no protector. A period of corruption and decay followed... • struggle for control of Church, its territories and wealth • Church subject to whims of local aristocracy • popes appointed by these nobles often only pursued family interests • Church failed to maintain discipline and integrity—some popes came to power through bribery Meanwhile on the Arabian Peninsula Islam • Began in 622 CE among the Bedouin tribes Some sources of Church income • tithes of the Arabian peninsula, based on the teachings of Muhammad. •Islam is Arabic for “submission” (to God’s will) •—A Muslim is one who has submitted. •Islam is monotheistic, like Judaism and Christianity •It is the world’s fastest growing religion • land rents • donations • judicial services • agricultural production of monks Benedict IX— Pope 1032-1044, 1045, 1047-1048 Mecca 25 Muhammad • born in Mecca in 570 • his father was from a respected clan within the city’s most powerful tribe, the Quraysh • According to Muslim teachings, the angel Gabriel commanded Muhammad to become a prophet for the one and only God, Allah • Arabs at this time were polytheistic, worhipping over 300 different nature gods • Muhammad claimed Allah was the only God • Muhammad demanded destruction of idols and denounced the worship of other gods •Threatened by his proclamations, Quraysh leaders persecuted Muhammad, who fled to Yathrib in 622 with over 70 families. • His flight is known as hijra (migration), and begins the Islamic community •622 is year one according to the Muslim calendar 27 26 expansion of Islam from Spain to Northwest India, under Muhammad and later Caliphs Arabian peninsula Spain •Muhammad founded his ideal community in Yathrib, where religion and the state were one. • 8 years later, the population was •Muhammad then conquered Mecca and established a theocracy—a state in which the clergy exercise political power and in which religious law is dominant over civil law converted to Islam. •by the 8th century the Islamic •Yathrib became known as Medina. empire stretched from Spain across North Africa, and into India It was seen as Islam’s model city. 28 • Kaaba—the sacred shrine • located near the center of the Great Mosque in Mecca The Five Pillars of Islam • thought to have originally been built by Abraham • considered by Muslims to be the most sacred place on earth • Muslims orient themselves toward this shrine during the five daily prayers • contains the Black Stone of Mecca, said to have been given to Adam on his expulsion from Paradise (also thought to have been found by Abraham and his son, Ishmael, as they searched for stones to build the Kaaba.) 1. Confession of faith —There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of God. 2. recitation of prayers 5 times daily 3. charitable contributions to the Islamic community 4. fasting from dawn to sunset during the month of Ramadan 5. the hajj, (pilgrimage) to the holy city of Mecca (and to the Kaaba) 29 30 Muslims scholars were receptive to the achievements of other cultures and enthusiastic in their desire to understand the natural world The Qur’an •Muhammad wrote nothing—his disciples recorded his teachings after his death • brought Asian innovations to the West — “Arabic” numerals from Hindus —paper and gunpowder from the Chinese • The Qur’an is the Holy Book of Islam —for Muslims, the word of God, perfect, complete, unchanged —a guide to spiritual and secular life —supreme authority; source of belief, rituals, laws —primary text for the study of Arabic • copied and preserved classical Greek texts including works of Aristotle • made original contributions to mathematics, philosophy, chemistry, geography, and astronomy, literature, medicine •Qur’an means “recitation,” as the •This knowledge spread into Europe, helping to foster a book is meant to be read aloud or chanted. rebirth of learning and contributing to the rise of Western universities in the 12th century. 31 32 Muslim inventions Year 859: first degree granting university founded in Morocco by Princess Fatima al-Firhi. Her sister founded an adjacent mosque and both still operate almost 1200 years later. 9th century: earliest construction of a “flying machine” created by Abbas idn Firnas. In his most famous attempt, he flew upward for a few moments (then fell.) His designs most likely inspired Leonardo da Vinci. Year 872: Hospitals as we know them today, with wards and teaching centers. The first? Ahmad ibn Tulun Hospital in Cairo, Egypt, which provided free care for anyone who needed it. Year 1000: 1500 page encyclopedia of surgery, written by Dr. Al Zahrawi, used in Europe as a medical reference for the next 500 years. 9th century: Coffee! First brewed in Yemen. Did not reach Europe until the 16th century by the early 8th century, many countries around the Mediterranean had become Muslim, due in part to expert cavalry attacks by Muslim armies • by this time, Muslim forces advanced as far Poitiers, France 34 • 33 •in 732, Muslim forces, led by Abd al Rahman al Ghafiqi, met Pepin the Short’s father: Charles Martel (who was ruler of the Frankish kingdom at the time) in what became known as the Battle of Tours • the two armies met on a plain between Tours and Poiters •Charles Martel attacked Muslim forces from the rear, but Ghafiqi’s forces regrouped • 2 days later, the Franks stood against the Muslim attack on a high plain— unfavorable terrain. Ghafiqi was killed, and the Muslims retreated. The Crusades • 9 military expeditions between 1095 and 1272 begun by Pope Urban II • began as an effort to slow Muslim expansion, to take Jerusalem from Muslims, and reopen pilgrimage routes to Jerusalem closed through Muslim rule • Crusaders believed defending territory pleased God; redeemed their sins interpretations of outcome: —stopped Muslim expansion; Europe remained primarily Christian —these invasions unified Europe • Battle of Tours forces: Franks: 20,000-30,000 Muslims: as high as 80,000 35 36 Avignon Papacy 1309-1377 • the relocation of the papacy from Rome to the city of Avignon in Southern France by Pope Clement V in response to political pressure from the French king Philip IV Decline of Church authority • Growth of European territories from tribal states to nations, contributed to weakening of church authority Further, the Church’s reputation was damaged by 2 events • Avignon Papacy • Great Schism Avignon 37 Rome 38 The Great Schism • The papacy returned to Rome in 1377 under Pope Gregory XI France, Sicily, Scotland, Portugal supported Avignon • Gregory dies; cardinals elected new Italian pope • French cardinals elected their own pope • Christian Europe then divided under reign of 2 popes, one in Avignon, one in Rome, resulting in the Great Schism • the bubonic plague struck Europe in 1347 • originated in Asia • in 1409, church council at Pisa asks both popes to • carried into Europe by flea-bearing resign and elects a new pope (the “Pisan pope”) England, Poland, Hungary, Germany, and Italy remained loyal to Rome The Black Death black rats infesting ships •this results in...3 popes •finally resolved by the Council of Constance -1414 •removed all three popes and elected a new pope, •killed 1/3 of Europe’s 70 million people between 1348 and 1351 Martin V 39 40 The plague compounded by growing famine •Beginning in 1315, crops failed regularly •famine raised death rate; made population more susceptible to disease The German craftsman Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press in about 1450 •brought about the development of printing and Economic and social results of plague and famine • widespread death led to labor shortages • greater demand for workers • improved bargaining power of survivors • peasants became tenant farmers or took city jobs • feudalism in decline • middle class is born 41 The first printed book may be the Gutenberg Bible of 1455 43 publishing industries and a number of new occupations: —printers —typeface designers —booksellers —editors —proofreaders 42 ...
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