Unformatted text preview: The promise of immortality
is central to Christianity.
Why do we as human beings need
to believe in redemption and a!
a"erlife? Most religions address the idea of
!Judaism: the true Messiah
will bring peace; the righteous
dead will be resurrected Medieval Philosophy !Islam: day of judgment will
divide all people between
Paradise and Hell 2 Why is the promise of an afterlife especially
important to people in the Middle Ages?
The only sense of protection or
security in these harsh conditions
comes from belief in God and the
saints. • •
• Medieval people believed
!God can protect or destroy, so
develop a good relationsip Average life span: 30 years!why?
violence Medieval Christians
saw the church as
guiding its "ock
territor y to safety.
3 !Saints can help believers
!Human beings OWE God
How do believers communicate
with God? through the Church
4 The Christian Church gave its followers a system
for saving their souls
Pope Innocent III wrote his sermon
On the Misery of the Human Condition around 1200. 1. Your conduct determines your #nal destination$Heaven, He%, Purgatory 2. But in order to gain God &s grace and be saved, you must take part in th'
2. Holy Communion
3. Penance $Confession%
6. Holy Orders $Ordination for priesthood%
7. Anointing of the Sick/Last Rites 'Man was formed of dust, slime and ashes...(and) the stain of sin. He was born
to toil, dread, and trouble; and more wretched still, was born only to die. He
commits depraved acts by which he o#ends God, his neighbor, and himself...
He will become fuel for those &res which are forever hot...food for the worm...
a mass of rottenness which will forever stink and reek...*
(God+s judgement is severe!) Payment will be exacted to the last penny.
they that do evil (will be) cast into the furnace of the &re. There shall be
weeping... darkness...anguish...(and) utter wretchedness....and &re burning,
forever and ever world without end.* 5 6 Man is sinful by nature.
Flesh is a burden.
You must su#er through life to
$hopefully% achieve salvation.
The only hope for salvation
is through the Church.
Your whole life
is based on faith!
Faith in God and Church
Before the 12th centur y, both ordinar y people and
scholars considered the Bible and the writings of church
fathers like Augustine to be the!source of knowledge Faith!
not science or rational inquir y, etc. 7 8 Faith precedes reason.
Augustin' We can+t discover truth
through our senses.
Understanding is the
reward of faith. In other words, you can+t
understand until you
believe. But where does that leave human reason? 9 Oxford University$
instruction began around 1096;
o(ca%y established around 1167 Translations of Aristotle!s work
comes from Islamic scholars to
the West about 700 years after
Aristotle $ The Development
of Universities in
• late 8th c. !Charlemagne creates • realistic
• emphasized the role of human
senses in understanding the world • nearly 80 universities formed in schools!education centers mostly on
Bible Middle Ages, including Bologna $1088%,
Oxford $1096%, Paris $1150%, and
Cambridge $1209% • 12th c.!Islamic learning and
translation of ancient Greek texts
spreads to the West. • Nature could be understood
i.e. through obser vation
and comparison • created to study theology, law, • Demand for education increases
• 12th,13th c.!One of the most • emphasis on liberal arts signals move signi&cant medieval contributions to
modern western society is the
university. 10 Aristotle $384 , 322 BC % medicine, and liberal arts
away from intellectual world dominated
by the Church 11 • The greatest human endeavor to
Aristotle was the use of reason. Aristotle wrote on many
subjects, including physics,
metaphysics, poetry, music,
theater, logic, rhetoric, politics,
ethics, biolog y and zoolog y. 12 • The Church bans the works of
• Aristotle in 1210, but the cat
was already out of the bag. For the &rst time, Christian
theologians were confronted with
rationalism!an approach to
truth which emphasized the
superiority of reason $not faith.% • By 1255, all of Aristotle+s works
were being studied at major
universities Aristotle+s ideas contradicted Christian teaching:
Aristotle Christians Understanding comes from reason Understanding comes from faith Universe always existed God created the universe Goal of human beings: happiness
$excellence!be the best you can be% Goal of human beings:
obedience to God+s commands 13 14 Thomas Aquinas "1225#1274$
"Thomas of Aquino$ From this point, scholars tr y to make ancient
Greek and Christian thought work together. •
• • 15 Went to the university center of the
Dominicans in Paris
studied and lectured on the works the newly
discovered works of Aristotle • Aristotle Preferred the more radical Dominican friars •
Augustine as a child, sent to a traditional monaster y as a
prospective monk • Scholasticism
The system of teaching
that attempted to reconcile
theology and Greek
philosophy $faith and
reason%. Italian theologian completed his masterpiece the
Summa Theologica in 1268 16 How do we reconcile reason and faith?
In other words, how do we harmonize what we
have learned as human beings with what God
has revealed in the Bible and Church teachings? • • Thomas Aquinas takes the via media $middle path%
between the ideas of church authorities and those of
scholars who followed Aristotle Summa Theologica
• summarizes and provides reasoning for almost
all points of Christian theology
•.demonstrates that Greek philosophy and
Christian theology are $mostly% compatible He viewed theology as a science; faith and reason
both necessar y to obtain truth/knowledge of God •.in other words, reason and faith can work
together to obtain truth...for instance.... 17 Aristotle Thomas also attempted to prove the existence of God through reason. Christians Universe always existed 18 God created the universe The 5 proofs: Note that each proof begins with an empirical fact. Thomas uses reason to arrive at a conclusion that also
accepts faith: 1. Some things in the universe are in motion. It follows that
whatever is moved is moved by something else, which in turn, is moved
by something else. Since this can+t go on into in&nity, there must be a
%rst mover, which hasn+t been moved by anything else: God. 1. Aristotle never proved the universe always existed
2. It+s impossible for human reason to establish whether
it did or did not always exist 2. In the world, causes are found to be ordered in a series. Things
do not cause themselves. No cause, no e#ect. Again, since this can+t go on
into in&nity, there must be a &rst cause: God. Then let+s rephrase the question: Is it conceivable that
something caused by God could always have existed? 3. In nature, some things are possible, but not necessar y.
Ever ything can+t be unnecessar y, because then we would have to conclude
that once there was nothing. If that was the case, there would still be
nothing, since something that does not exist can only be brought into
existence by something that already exists. Therefore, we have to admit
the existence of something necessar y, and not caused by another: God. Either way, it+s reasonable to say that:
3. Whatever begins to exist has a cause.
4. The universe began to exist.
- 5.- Therefore, the universe had a cause. $For Thomas, that
cause was God.% 19 20 4. Among beings, there are var ying degrees of goodness, beauty,
etc. Some people are good, some less good, etc. This assumes, however, a
comparison to a perfect standard.There must be something, then, that
causes goodness, etc. in all other beings. 'And this we call God.* Results of Thomas! work 5. Things in nature "like plants, which do not have knowledge$ act
toward a goal. They generally act in the same way to reach the goal
rather then reaching it by accident. Therefore, ever ything in nature is
directed to its goal by something with intelligence: God. • considered a radical in his time !but helps
the church!because the discover y of Greek
thought created DOUBT in the idea of faith • notes that since all truths are valid, there
should be no con"ict between those arrived
at through faith or reason $or both% • his work also made clear that the church
needed to combine faith in mysteries with
rational explanations in order to grow as an
institution 21 Conclusion • The scholastics aimed to create a
synthesis of Christian and
Classical learning $faith and reason%
but their motivation was still largely
religious. • But thinking had shifted&
scholastics were humanists. • Humanism& system of thought
which emphasizes human reason
and dignity • They believed that the human
being as the noblest and most
rational of God!s creatures and
that he was the link between the
world and divine intelligence. 23 22 ...
View Full Document