RM arch-eng - Roman architectural innovations...

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Unformatted text preview: Roman architectural innovations Concrete!Romans used pozzolana !volcanic earth" mixed with lime, gravel and water #set well even under water, and #dried slowly Roman Architecture, Engineering, and Entertainment 2 The arch allowed for the creation of ceilings or vaults Roman architectural innovations barrel vaults groined vaults domes The Arch!a cur ved structure that spans an opening and support weights from above. #could bear much more weight than Greek post and lintel construction 3 4 The Romans also invented the round temple The Romans also invented the round temple The Pantheon, 126 CE 5 6 The Pantheon, 126 CE Pantheon!temple to all gods • oldest standing domed structure in Rome • 142 feet in diameter and height • Lit by 27$foot oculus or %eye,&# 7 opening at center of dome 8 The Pantheon"s dome weighs approximately 5000 tons #10 million pounds!$ !Pantheon concrete is NOT reinforced What did the architects do to reduce the weight of the dome as much as possible? 1. 2. 3. 4. 9 Tabularium# public record o'ce Temple of Saturn Temple of Romulus The Forum Tullianum#jail Senators held meetings in the Curia Basilica Julia courts, shops, banks 10 Basilica Aemilia public bldg; business Temple of Castor and Pollux Home of Vestal Virgins 11 The Forum today 12 Circus Maximus • one of the largest Roman hippodromes • seats on 3 sides • low wall in center( chariots raced around it • created in 6th BC by one of Rome(s 7 kings • rebuilt; held 150,000 people by Augustus( time • chariot races played both a political and popular role %bread and circuses& %For the people...now...desire only two things, the grain dole and chariot races in the Circus...& Largo di Torre Argentina 13 Juvenal !Satires" 14 Chariot racing appealed to all levels of society images: various household items decorated !ith racing motifs Site of Circus Maximus today 15 16 The four Roman racing stables were known by the racing colors worn by their charioteers: Green , Red, White, Blue Charioteers were usually slaves who could eventually buy their freedom. They usually died before they were 25. 17 • concrete foundation • 4 levels#160 feet high • elliptical shape#approx. 600( x 500( • capacity: 50,000 19 Colosseum • built by Emperors Vespasian and Titus • 70$80 CE • *rst known as Amphitheatre Flavium • later as Colosseum after Colossus of Nero • built on site of drained lake 18 • arena )oor made of wooden planks covered with sand • Trap doors in )oor led to underground rooms and cages 20 Gladiator games arose from Roman funeral rites #human sacri*ces #funeral games Gladiators were Top: furthest from arena: WORST SEATS • Wives, daughters of wealthy • poor, slaves, foreigners • wealthy private citizens • prominent Romans#Senators, etc. • Vestal Virgins Closest to arena: BEST SEATS • emperor, empress • Rome(s defeated enemies • slaves charged with crimes • free volunteers • rarely: senators, aristocrats, emperors • enemies and slaves forced into gladiator school#became property of their manager 21 22 Roman aqueducts sti" seen in: Typical day of games at Colosseum Italy Greece France Spain North Africa Turkey • Morning #Animal *ghts #circus acts #Man/animal *ghts • Lunchtime: executions • Afternoon: gladiator *ghts •Over 500 years 11 aqueducts !about 260 miles worth" built to bring water to Rome • mostly underground conduits made of • Games eventually die out due stone and terra cotta pipe. to expense, declining population, spread of Christianity Gladiators genera"y died between the ages of 20#30, a$er anywhere %om 5#34 &ghts '2#3 &ghts per year(. •Water ran by the force of gravity alone from water sources in the hills •*rst aqueduct built in 312 BCE 23 24 By 109 CE, Romans used 200 million gallons of water per day Roman Baths in Bath, England, 60$70 CE 25 27 The Trevi Fountain in Rome still gets its water from an aqueduct 26 ...
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