Roman History A - Italy and Greece: contrasting...

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Unformatted text preview: Italy and Greece: contrasting environments Roman History Greece • mountains • buffer civilizations Rome • no buffers of any kind 2 1 No one could have predicted that a small village in an area of Italy called Latium would one day control the entire Mediterranean world. 3 Some modern names of territories once part of Roman Empire • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Portugal Spain Andorra parts of UK France Monaco Luxembourg Belgium Netherlands Germany Switzerland Liechtenstein Italy San Marino Vatican City Malta • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Austria Czech Republic Slovakia Slovenia Croatia Bosnia Hungary Albania Greece Macedonia Romania Bulgaria Turkey Georgia Armenia Azerbaijan • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Syria Iraq Kuwait Cyprus Lebanon Jordan Israel Saudi Arabia Egypt Palestine Sudan Libya Tunisia Algeria Morocco 4 The Roman army was undefeated for over 500 years. Why were they so successful? “Just like the Marines, but much nastier.” Historian Peter Heather on the Roman army The Traditional founding of Rome 1. first fully professional army on global scale— wages supported soldier during his service 2. extremely disciplined mindset—based on “virtus” (courage) and patriotism, loyalty, strength, excellence 3. grueling basic training 4. weapons training in use of scutum and gladius 5. always took the offensive 6. flexible-legion not phalanx 7. organized ranks—heavy infantry, equestrians, light infantry 8. military tactics 9. learned from their opponents and adapted 10.tenacious—fought for one of 2 things: • unconditional surrender • total destruction Legend has it that Mars is the father of Romulus and Remus. Why choose this particular god? Romulus and Remus with their wolf foster mother, bronze, c. 500–480 BC. Capitoline Museums, Rome 5 • • Rome • 6 Roman Republic 509-31 BCE Early Rome 753-509 BCE • • Knowledge of early Rome comes primarily from 1. writings of Livy 2. archeology Legend: Romans trace their ancestry back to Aeneas, who escaped the sack of Troy. carrying his father on his back. He eventually settled in Latium (region of central western Italy) and his son founded Alba Longa (ancient city southeast of what would become Rome). Romulus and Remus were descended from the kings of Alba Longa, and founded Rome. founded in 753 BCE small city state in central Italy on the Tiber River originally ruled by Etruscan kings, but monarchy ends around 509 BC when the kings were expelled,a new constitution was created, where power rested in the hands of the senate, (an assembly of leading citizens), who delegated executive actions to a pair on consuls elected for 1 year. A republic is a political system in which power rests in citizens who elect people to represent them...however, in Rome at this time, patricians monopolized power • 2 consuls —elected for 1 year by assembly* —then became Senators coins of the Roman Republic (after 211 AD) • Real control rested with the Senate (300-600 men) who: —advised consuls (This “advice” usually obeyed) —controlled foreign relations —controlled the treasury —prepared laws to put before the Assembly • The Roman Republic was born. 7 Ruled by Assembly— made up of citizens divided into classes according to wealth. Richest blocks voted first until a majority was reached. (called only when required to vote—also not allowed to debate) 8 Patricians • privileged families; • held all highest offices • influenced Senate/Assembly • legislated civil/criminal law • controlled army • owned most land Class conflict By 250 BCE Rome controlled the entire Italian peninsula Roman society was a constant conflict between patricians and plebeians. Plebeians were slowly given rights to prevent civil war and keep city functioning. 451 BCE—laws written down, which gave plebeians protection against patrician judges How does Rome hang on to its conquered territories? 287 BCE—plebeians could become part of assembly; their votes could become law Plebeians • poor commoners • could not hold gov’t office • generally farmers, laborers, soldiers Real power, however still rested in the patrician classes. 10 9 Early Roman Republic 509-264 BCE Conquered territories • cities were not destroyed • loyalty vs. resistance • Roman citizenship for some—absorb others • • and make them loyal allies lost political independence, but controlled their own internal affairs payment for soldiers—money and land— why is land important? Rome built roads to ensure settlements remained and were accessible • Peace ensues in the Italian peninsula 11 12 First Punic War 264-241 BCE Middle Roman Republic 264-133 BCE • • • Rome at war with Carthage —fights three separate battles known as the Punic Wars Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca 13 battle between Carthage and Rome over Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia Outcome: Rome takes all three islands 14 Second Punic War 219-202 BCE Saguntum War Elephants • Carthage building empire in Spain; refuses to withdraw from city of Saguntum (Roman ally) • War elephants—important • • Rome controlled the sea, so Hannibal led his army overland through Spain and Gaul, across the Alps, down into Italy • weapons in ancient military history. Mainly used in charges, to trample the enemy and/or break their ranks. The development of both effective strategies and the cannon brought use of combat elephant to an end. * 15 16 Second Punic War 219-202 BCE Third Punic War 149-146 BCE • Hannibal dependent on Spain • Rome sends Scipio to Spain • Conquers Spain, goes to • Concerned about a • • destroys city, enslaves • Africa Hannibal returns; is defeated by Scipio at Zama Rome now controls Mediterranean reviving Carthage, Rome declares war survivors • renames the new Roman province “Africa” “Delenda est Carthago!” Cato, Roman statesman Scipio Zama 17 The Carthaginians put Rome under greater pressure than any other opponent.What if Rome had lost the wars with Carthage? Defeat on this scale may have caused the collapse of the Roman state, and Roman expansion may never have occurred. —Greco-Roman culture profoundly influenced the development of the Western world. —Many countries speak Latin-based languages and use the Latin alphabet —Many legal systems are based on Roman law. —Ease of travel within the Roman empire facilitated the spread of Christianity and the creation of the Roman Catholic Church. How would the Western world have looked if Rome had lost the Punic Wars? 19 18 ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/01/2011 for the course HUM 101 taught by Professor Neubeck-connor during the Spring '11 term at Moraine Valley Community College.

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