Roman History B - Late Roman Republic • Lucius Sulla...

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Unformatted text preview: Late Roman Republic • Lucius Sulla named “dictator” to restore order • 133-31 BCE Dictatorship: position used for emergencies: Roman government was allowed to hand complete authority to a single individual in times of crisis Victories abroad; Crisis at home • Hannibal destroys Italian farms during 2nd Punic War • farmers flee to cities looking for work • limited to 6 months • wealthy buy up farms • • wages and job opportunities low Sulla’s “reforms” increased the power of the Senate (patricians), taking power away from the Assembly (the people) 20 21 Late Roman Republic Julius Caesar 133-31 BCE • patrician who supported the people (populare) hated by Senate (optimates) Pompey, Crassus, and the end of the Republic • 59 BCE—elected consul • • After Sulla retires, Senate faced armed rebellion Crassus and Pompey elected consuls; allied themselves with assembly against Senate (patricians) • reduced Senate’s power • • Crassus, frightened of Pompey, allies himself with popular leaders, including the general Julius Caesar. • • Crassus killed in battle “Alea iacta est.” “The die is cast.” Julius convinced Pompey and Crassus to reconcile • • 58 BCE—conquers Gaul the First Triumvirate is established (secret) • Caesar and Pompey become rivals • Senate backs Pompey as lesser evil, demands Caesar disband his army • 49 BC, Caesar crosses the Rubicon into Italy starting a civil war Pompey gained power over entire Mediterranean region • he seizes Rome, is named dictator by the people 22 23 Julius Caesar • follows Pompey to Greece, defeats him there Octavian • Pompey flees to Egypt and is killed • Crassus • starts series of reforms: —cancels debts —creates colonies in Spain, Greece, Gaul for soldiers and unemployed • named dictator for life • 44 BCE Caesar’s stabbed to death by enemies in the Senate led by Brutus and Cassius Pompey power in Rome held by Marc Antony and Lepidus • Senate finds Octavian useful ally, hopes to end Antony’s control of Rome • • returns to Rome in triumph* A new leader emerged: Caesar’s adopted son Octavian • • defeats Pompey’s supporters in Africa and Spain Octavian forms 2nd triumvirate with Antony and Aemilius Lepidus, excluding Senate from power 25 24 • Octavian became Augustus Caesar or “revered ruler”—ruled from 27 BC-14 AD • Marc Antony takes up with Cleopatra, queen • 27 BC: develops relationship with of Egypt; threatens Octavian’s rule Senate called the “First Settlement” —he needs Senate —people need to think they are still living in a republic restored order after years of civil war • secured borders • revived state religion • rebuilt Rome • created police and fire-fighting forces • trade and most social classes flourished • Octavian uses Mark Antony’s relationship with Cleopatra to his political advantage • Octavian defeats Antony at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE; becomes sole ruler of Rome. • Beginning of 2 centuries of peace and economic growth • End of republic and beginning of autocratic empire • period known as Pax Romana begins 26 (31 BC-193 CE)—relative lack of armed conflict 27 the Aeneid Augustus commissions the Aeneid • epic poem written by Vergil in • Augustus’ reign a time of political and social change in Rome the 1st century BCE • modeled on the Iliad —Republic had fallen —civil war had ripped apart society —traditional social roles and cultural norms had been eroded •  tells the story of Aeneas, Trojan hero and legendary founder of Rome • depicted as a man devoted to • Augustus tries to revive traditional Roman moral values: courage, purpose, etc. • the Aeneid reflects that aim duty and loyal to his country — • Why wouldn’t a character like Achilles work in this story? 28 29 Roman Religion Civil Wars 193-284 CE • State religion (grew out of agricultural Problems in the Empire • choosing new emperors • germanic tribes crossing northern italian borders • inflation • plague • starts decades of civil war and chaos • In 284 CE, Diocletian seizes power, and would eventually snatch Rome from the brink of destruction. communities—gods who controlled weather, crops, etc.) • also absorbed gods from other cultures, especially... • Greek gods —Zeus became Jupiter —Hera became Juno, etc. • Emperor worship—emperors often deified after death • 2 groups refused to worship Roman gods or • But more on that later.... emperors—Jews and Christians 30 31 Judaism • originated around 3000 BCE among tribal people called Hebrews Christianity GALILEE • monotheistic—ONE God (Yahweh) • foundation of Judaism: Hebrew bible (Old • Jesus—founder of Christianity • 4 BCE-30 CE (born during Augustus’s reign) • led by Abraham, Hebrews settle in Canaan, • Christ—Greek “Christos” Testament along the east coast of the Mediterranean • Canaan is present-day Israel, West Bank and Gaza, parts of Lebanon and Syria —Translation of Hebrew “moshiach” (messiah) which means “anointed one” JUDEA • this area fell under Roman control around 63 BCE, governed by “client kings” such as Herod • some believed he would restore Israel’s fortunes, but Jesus is NOT the Messiah for Jews • Jesus is many things to many people • Jews envisioned the coming of a Messiah who would restore Israel to peace and freedom • area within white line—ancient Palestine • Galilee and Judea—ancient territory names 32 33 Political situation • Judea—ruled by Roman Empire (in Jesus time, Augustus, and then Tiberius Jesus is • Christians: God, the Son of God • Muslims: a prophet— “The Messiah, son of Mary, was no more than a Messenger before whom many Messengers have passed away; and his mother adhered wholly to truthfulness, and they both ate food (as other mortals do). (Qur’an 5:75). • • “client” king: Herod Antipas • Roman governor of the area :  Pontius Pilate • Pilate relied on local leaders for daily rule: Jewish high priest Caiaphas and council (appointed by Romans) Buddhists: A wise enlightened man; teachings similar to Buddah • GALILEE Jews: a man who was neither the Moschiach (Anointed One) or a prophet JUDEA • Rome let Jews keep their customs, religion, etc.; expected loyalty 34 35 • Jesus begins his ministry at the age of 30 Main aspects of teaching 1. kingdom of God at hand—God’s will would soon be done on earth Gospels • most of what we know of Jesus comes from: —Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John (in the New Testament) 2. Son of Man—divine figure who would bring about judgement and redemption of Israel 3. Inclusion in kingdom—anyone could gain entry through devotion to God, compassion, repentance • all 4 Gospels tell same basic story —Jesus travelled with his disciples —taught for 2-3 years —performed miracles —was crucified and raised from dead 36 37 Valentin de Boulogne Christ Driving the Money Changers out of the Temple c. 1618 The problem with Jesus 1. charismatic and independent 2. message is revolutionary 3. develops a following 38 Passover in Jerusalem • commemorates Hebrews’ liberation from slavery in Egypt • dangerous time; as such, Jerusalem patrolled by Pilate’s troops • Jesus spends time teaching, also predicts the destruction of the temple • causes scene in temple 39 Why was Jesus executed? Jesus was guilty of: • inflammatory speech—preaching of kingdom of God —perhaps implies that he was “King,” though no evidence to suggest he claimed this —Rome quick to dispatch anyone too vocal in opposition Matthias Stom Christ before Caiaphas 1630s • inflammatory acts—(act of violence in temple) can start riots and kill many people Jesus brought before Caiaphas • accused of —threatening to destroy temple —blasphemy • Jesus’ execution is ordered • crucified by the Romans in 30 CE • seen by followers after his death • Caiaphas was doing his job: keeping the peace, suppressing potential uprisings 40 41 Back to Late Rome Why did Christianity spread? • By 4th C. CE, Christianity was the official faith of Rome 1. Roman empire crumbling 2. general sense of insecurity 3. Simplicity of message 4. Promise of redemption, freedom from material cares 6. Jesus was a credible source —practiced what he preached —Lived among men—not otherworldly like Yahweh or Roman gods 7. the influence of later emperors, especially Constantine 8. the influence and political ties of the papacy More problems... • • • • • • • Christianity became the dominant religion of Western Culture • Christianity is now the largest religion in the world 42 Germanic tribes crossing northern borders Christians refuse to serve in the army size of army increasing to defend borders—payroll draining empire taxes raised in Rome— destroying economy inflation plague 43 Diocletian divides Empire in 2 Diocletian • Known as Diocletian’s Tetrarchy (rule by four) • reigned 284- 305 • Diocletian rules eastern half of the empire (capital Nicomedia in modern day Turkey) • had one goal—to save Rome and retire alive • Maximian rules the western portion (capital Rome) • realized that the empire was too large to be governed by a single emperor • While considered co-emperors, Diocletian is superior • Note that Diocletian shifts control of the empire to the East. Rome becomes ceremonial capital. 44 45 The Great Persecution Diocletian divides Empire in 2 • • • • begun in 303 by Diocletian • Beneath co-emperors are 2 officials called caesars who are appointed —help manage empires —assume control at death of emperor(s) effort to stamp out Christianity, seen as a cause for the Empire’s problems —forbade Christian worship Succession is therefore guaranteed and successors already have experience —destroyed churches Brilliant! This stabilized the Empire —forced citizens to choose between offering a sacrifice to pagan gods or death. 46 47 Constantine (reigned from 306-337) • • The system falls apart immediately as the two new emperors began feuding • • Brilliant! Except... Within a year, the son of one of the caesars gains the throne... Constantinopole becomes prosperous Christian city by 395 most Romans were Christians 2 halves of the empire pass on to their two caesars • ends persecution of Christians through Edict of Milan He forces Maximian to retire as well. • But in 324, he abandoned this system and ruled over a SINGLE, united empire, shifting the seat of government east to his own city in Turkey: Constantinople. • In 305, Diocletian retires to a farm to raise cabbages. • • • • Like Diocletian, ruled only half of the Roman Empire— the West 48 49 The End of the Western Empire The End of the Western Empire 395-476 • • 476 CE—the Germanic general Odoacer Although Diocletian stabilized Rome for a while, the Empire faced problems it could not solve: —increasingly non-roman army—lack of discipline and loyalty, incompetent leadership —shrinking tax base —increasing invasions, loss of territories —even the division into East and West may have been a factor and his troops defeat the Roman army and depose the last western Emperor, Romulus Augustulus • Odoacer ruled not as Roman emperor but as first Germanic King of Italy. • Western Empire fractured into many independent Germanic kingdoms 50 51 ...
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