Lecture03 - Sociology 549, Lecture 3 Graphs by Paul von...

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Unformatted text preview: Sociology 549, Lecture 3 Graphs by Paul von Hippel Common graphs for frequency distributions Pie chart Line chart (frequency polygon) Bar chart Histogram Other common graphs Time series Statistical map Common distortions False perspective e.g., tilting a pie chart Shortening an axis; e.g., not starting the vertical at 0 breaking the vertical squishing the horizontal Reasons Add visual interest Make small differences look big, Or make big differences look small Shapes of distributions Symmetric Skewed Positively skewed Negatively skewed Modal unimodal bimodal multimodal Pie chart Rare in research Common in media Hard to compare wedges (different orientations) Cant show order Restrict to nominal variables Majors in Soc 549 Criminology 35% Psychology 4% Sociology 61% Perspective distortion Add a meaningless 3 rd dimension Tilt pie away Edge adds to front Perspective shrinks back Comparisons even harder Sociology 61% Criminology 35% Psychology 4% Pie Charts in politics Federal budget, from the website of the War Resisters League Human Resources 32% General Government 16% Physical Resources 6% Past Military 20% Current Military 26% Redrawn Bar chart (column chart) In research, more common than pie Can show order Appropriate for ordinal and interval (as well as nominal) Easy to compare vertical distances Majors in Soc 549 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Sociology Criminology Psychology Axis distortion Start vertical above zero Exaggerates all differences Similar distortion: Break vertical axis Majors in Soc 549 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Sociology Criminology Psychology Perspective distortion Add meaningless 3 rd dimension Reduces differences (caps same size) 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Psychology Criminology Sociology Perspective distortion (continued)...
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Lecture03 - Sociology 549, Lecture 3 Graphs by Paul von...

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