skeletal sysetm ppt - Skeletal System By the end of this...

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1 1 Skeletal System By the end of this lesson, you should be able to: Describe the structure and function of Bones Identify all of the Bones on p. 138 of your textbook Identify the type of movement at a given articulation 2 Outline • Description of Bones • List of Bones – Axial division – Appendicular division • Articulations (Joints) 3 Location of Skeletal System • Bones • Cartilage • Ligaments
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2 4 Functions of Skeleton • Support • Storage: – Calcium salt mineral reserve – Lipids in yellow marrow • Blood cell production • Protection • Leverage – Act as a gear to change magnitude/speed/direction of forces created by muscles KEY CONCEPT 5 Structure of Bone • Supporting connective tissue – Specialized cells – Matrix of extracellular protein fibers & ground substance (Calcium phosphate) • 4 shapes – Long – Short – Flat – Irregular Fig 6-1 6 Features of Long Bones • Periosteum – Fibrous outer layer – Cellular inner layer • Epiphysis – spongy bone – Articular cartilage • Diaphysis – compact bone • Endosteum • Marrow cavity KEY CONCEPT
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3 7 Periosteum / Endosteum • Periosteum – Isolates bone from surrounding tissues – Attaches tendons and ligaments • Endosteum 8 Compact Bone • Compact Bone (Good for stress from 1 direction) – Osteons form the basic functional unit – Concentric layers of osteons form around a central canal (contains blood vessels) – Lamellae are cylindrical, parallel to long axis of central canal – Perforating canals provide passageways link central canals to 9 Spongy Bone • Spongy bone (good for stress from many directions) – No osteons – Lamellae form rods or plates (trabeculae) – creates an open network
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4 10 Cells in Bone • Osteocytes: mature bone cells (majority of cells) • Osteoclasts: giant cells that dissolve bony matrix to regulate calcium and phosphate in body fluids • Osteoblasts: produce new bone KEY CONCEPT 11 • Intramembranous Ossification – Osteoblasts differentiate within embyronic connective tissue – Originate from a center – Bones include Flat bones of skull, lower jaw, and clavicle • Endochondral Ossification – Ossification of existing hyaline cartilage 12 Endochrondal Ossification 1) Chondrocytes within cartilage enlarge and matrix calcifies 2) Bone formation begins at shaft surface 3) Blood vessels invade inner region, and spongy bone
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This note was uploaded on 05/29/2011 for the course KINESIOLOG 245 taught by Professor Kk during the Spring '04 term at University of Calgary.

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skeletal sysetm ppt - Skeletal System By the end of this...

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