skeletal system study guide

skeletal system study guide - Unit E: Skeletal System...

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Summer 2005 E.1 Unit E: Skeletal System Program Area : Health Occupations Education Course Title : Medical Sciences I Number : 7221 Unit Title : Skeletal System Suggested Time for Instruction : 5 class periods (90 minute classes) 10 class periods (55 minute classes) Course Percent : 5% Unit Evaluation : 100% Cognitive ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Competency : MD05. Analyze the anatomy and physiology of the skeleton. Specific Objectives: MD05.01 Describe the structure of the bones. MD05.02 Analyze the function of the skeletal system. MD05.03 Analyze characteristics and treatment of common skeletal disorders.
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Summer 2005 E.2 Unit E Master Outline E. Skeletal System MD05.01 Explain the structure of the bones. A. Structure of long bones 1. Osteocytes 2. Fontanel 3. Structure a. Diaphysis (compact bone) b. Epiphysis c. Medullary canal d. Endosteum e. Spongy bone f. Periosteum g. Articular cartilage B. Parts of the skeleton 1. Axial skeleton a. Skull i. Parietal ii. Frontal iii. Occipital iv. Temporal v. Nasal bone vi. Zygomatic arch vii. Infraorbital foramen viii. Mental foramen ix. Mandible x. Maxilla x i . V o m e r xii. Mastoid process xiii. Styloid process xiv. External auditory meatus x v . S u t u r e b. Spinal column/vertebra i. Cervical vertebrae ii. Thoracic vertebrae iii. Lumbar vertebrae i v . S a c r u m v. Coccyx c. Ribs and sternum i. Xiphoid process 2. Appendicular skeleton a. Clavicle and scapula b. Humerus, radius and ulna c. Carpals, metacarpals and phalanges i. Thumb ii. First through fourth digits d. Pelvis i. Ilium ii. Ischium iii. Pubis
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E.3 e. Femur, patella, tibia and fibula f. Tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges g. Calcaneus C. Joints 1. Ball and socket joints 2. Hinge joints 3. Pivot joints 4. Gliding joints 5. Suture MD05.02 Analyze the function of the skeletal system. A. Supports B. Protects internal organs C. Movement and anchorage 1. Abduction and adduction 2. Circumduction and rotation 3. Flexion and extension 4. Pronation and supination D. Mineral storage (calcium and phosphorus) E. Hemopoiesis 1. White blood cells made in yellow marrow 2. Red blood cells made in red marrow F. Bone formation 1. Embryo skeleton starts as osteoblasts, then change to cartilage 2. Ossification (bone replaces cartilage) starts at 8 weeks 3. Fontanel – soft spot on baby’s head 4. Periosteum – tough covering of long bones, contains blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves G. Vertebral column 1. Encloses spinal cord 2. Separated by pads of cartilage = intervertebral discs H. Bones 1. 12 pairs of ribs = 7 true, 3 false, 2 floating 2. Femur is longest and strongest bone in body I. Joints 1. Synovial fluid - lubrication 2. Types of joints a. Ball and socket joints – ball-shaped head, examp. Hip and shoulder b. Hinge joints – move in one direction or plane, examp. Knees, elbows, outer joints of fingers c. Pivot joints – rotate on a 2 nd , arch-shaped bone, examp. radius and ulna d. Gliding joints – flat surfaces glide across each other, examp.
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skeletal system study guide - Unit E: Skeletal System...

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