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BI 233 Chapter 23 Respiratory System

BI 233 Chapter 23 Respiratory System - Respiratory System...

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1 Respiratory System Chapter 23 Respiratory System Anatomy Cardiovascular and Respiratory systems work together to circulate gases Respiratory System Structurally consist of: Upper respiratory system: Located out side the thorax Nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pharynx Lower respiratory system: Located within the thorax larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli Respiratory System Functionally consist of: Conducting portion: The volume is about 150 ml Conduct, filter, warm, moisten air Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles Respiratory portion: The volume is about 5 to 6 liters Gas exchange between air and blood Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sac, alveoli
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2 Nose Divided into: – External potion – Internal portion Nose External portion The part that protrude from the face Covered by muscles and skin Lined with mucous membrane consist of bony and cartilaginous framework Bony framework: frontal bone, nasal bone, maxilla flexible cartilaginous framework: Lateral nasal cartilages: inferior to nasal bone Grater and lesser alar cartilages : form a portion of the nostrils walls Septal cartilage: forms the anterior portion of the nasal septum. Nostrils (anterior, external nares) Two openings on the undersurface of the external Nose
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3 Nose, Internal Structure A large cavity in the skull includes muscle and mucous membrane Merge with the external nose anteriorly Communicate with nasopharynx through internal nares (choanae) posteriorly. The anterior portion, just inside the nostrils surrounded by cartilage, called vestibule Nasal cavity Divided by nasal septum into right and left cavities The anterior portion made of cartilage (the septal and vomeronasal cartilages) The posterior portion made of vomer bone and perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone Superior, middle, and inferior conchae (turbinate) extend out of each lateral wall subdividing the nasal cavity into superior, middle, and inferior meati Frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary Frontal, maxillary, and anterior and middle ethmoid drain into middle meatus Sphenoid and posterior ethmoid drain into superior meatus Lined by respiratory mucosa that produce mucus to trap debris Help decrease the weight of the skull Nasolacrimal ducts and paranasal sinuses ducts open in the nasal cavity Paranasal Sinuses
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4 Nose Functions Warm incoming air by the blood in the capillaries, especially over the inferior turbinates Hair filter particulate matter mucus secreted by goblet cells moisten and filter incoming air Cilia move mucus toward the pharynx Detecting olfactory stimuli; receptors lie in the membrane lining of the superior nasal conchae and adjacent septum Modifying speech vibration (resonance) Pharynx Throat A bout 13 cm funnel-shaped muscular tube lined with mucous membrane
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