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Chapter 26 Urinary System Lecture Notes

Chapter 26 Urinary System Lecture Notes - Chapter 26...

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1 Chapter 26 Urinary System Anatomy and histology of the kidneys Paired, reddish kidney-bean- shaped organ Retroperitoneal: – Located just above the waist, between the levels of T12-L3 – Protected partially by 11th and 12th pairs of ribs The right kidney is slightly lower than the left because of the liver
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2 External Anatomy of the Kidneys The adult kidney is 10-12 cm long, 5-7 wide, 3 cm thick weighs 135-150 g The medial border: – Concave and faces the vertebral column – The hilus (a deep vertical fissure) is in the center of the medial border Contains the ureter, blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves The kidney is surrounded by three layers 1. Deep layer ( the renal capsule): Smooth transparent dense irregular connective tissue continuous with the outer coat of the Ureter Helps maintain the shape of the kidney and protects it from trauma 2. Middle layer( adipose capsule): Fatty tissue surrounds the renal capsule Protects and holds the kidney in place within the abdominal cavity 3. Superficial layer (renal fascia): A thin layer of dense irregular connective tissue, deep to the peritoneum Anchors the kidneys to the surrounding structures and to the abdominal wall Nephroptosis (floating kidney) inferior displacement of the kidney
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3 Internal anatomy of the kidneys Renal parenchyma The functional portion Has two regions: 1. Cortex: Smooth textured area extending from the renal capsule to the bases of the pyramids and renal columns Has two zones Outer cortical zone Inner juxtamedullary zone 2. Medulla: Deep reddish brown region 8-18 cone-shaped structures called renal pyramids The base faces the renal cortex The apex (called a renal papilla) points toward the hilus Renal lobe consist of: renal pyramid Overlying renal cortex ½ of each adjacent renal column Internal anatomy of the kidneys Papillary ducts Extend into the renal papillae of the pyramid and drain into minor calyces Minor calyces 8-18 drains into the major calyces Major calyces 2-3 drain into the renal pelvis Renal sinus contains: Part of renal pelvis, the calyces, and branches of the renal blood vessels and nerves Adipose tissue that stabilize the position of these structures in the renal sinuses
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4 Blood and Nerve Supply The kidney receives 20-25% (1200 ml) of cardiac output via the renal arteries Renal artery divides into segmental arteries which gives off interlobar arteries that enter the parenchyma through the renal columns and arch at the base of the pyramids between the cortex and medulla to become arcuate arteries Arcuate arteries give off interlobular arteries that enter the renal cortex and branch to afferent arterioles afferent arteriole divides into a capillary network, the glomerulus , that reunite to form efferent arteriole which drains blood out of the glomerulus Blood Supply The efferent arterioles form a network of capillaries,
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