EX1 Terms - Chapter 1 Key Terms Adaptation a t rait that...

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Chapter 1 Key Terms Adaptation: a trait that increases the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce compared to individuals without the trait. Atom: the smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of the element. Autotroph: “self feeders” normally, a photosynthetic organism; a producer. Binomial System: the 2 part system of naming organisms. Genus species. Biodiversity: the total number of species within an ecosystem and the resulting complexity of interactions among them. Cell: the smallest unit of life, consisting, at minimum, of an outer membrane that encloses a watery medium containing organic molecules, including genetic material composed of DNA. Cell theory: Chromosomes: a single DNA double helix together with proteins that help to organize DNA. Community: all the interacting populations within an ecosystem. Conclusion: in the scientific method, the decision about the validity of a hypothesis on the basis of experimental evidence. Control: that portion of an experiment in which all possible variables are held constant; in contrast to the “experimental” portion, in which a particular variable is altered. Cytoplasm: the material contained within the plasma membrane of a cell, exclusive of the nucleus. Deductive Reasoning: the process of generating hypotheses about how a specific experiment or observation will turn out.
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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): a molecule composed of deoxyribose nucleotides; contains the genetic information of all living cells. Domain: the broadest category for classifying organisms; organisms are classified into three domains: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Element: a substance that cannot be broken down, or converted, to a simpler substance by ordinary chemical means. Energy: the capacity to do work. Eukaryotic: referring to cells or organisms of the domain Eukarya (plants, animals, fungi, and protists). Eukaryotic cells have genetic material enclosed within a membrane-bound nucleus and contain other membrane-bound organelles. Evolution: the descent of modern organisms with modification from preexisting life- forms; strictly speaking, any change in the proportions of different genotypes in a population from one generation to the next. Experiment: in the scientific method, the testing of a hypothesis by carefully controlled observations, leading to the conclusion. Gene: the unit of heredity; a segment of DNA located at a particular place on a chromosome that encodes the information for the amino sequence of protein, and hence particular traits. Heterotroph: “other feeder”:an organism that eats other organisms; a consumer. Homeostasis: the maintenance of a relatively constant environment required for the optimal functioning of cells, maintained by the coordinated activity of numerous regulatory mechanisms; including the respiratory, endocrine, circulatory, and excretory systems. Hypothesis: in the scientific method, a supposition based on previous observations
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EX1 Terms - Chapter 1 Key Terms Adaptation a t rait that...

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