EX4 Terms - Chapter 8: Vocabulary Adenosine Tr iphosphate...

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Chapter 8: Vocabulary Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP): a molecule composed of the sugar ribose, the bases adenine, and three phosphate groups; the major energy carrier in cells. Cellular Respiration: the oxygen-requiring reactions, occurring in mitochondria, that break down the end products of glycolosis into carbon dioxide and water while capturing large amounts of energy of ATP. Chemiosmosis: a process of ATP generation in chloroplasts and mitochondria. The movement of electrons down an electron transport system is used to pump hydrogen ions across a membrane, thereby building up the concentration gradient of hydrogen ions across the membrane; the hydrogen ions diffuse back across the membrane through the pores of ATP-synthesizing enzymes; the energy of their movement down their concentration gradient drives ATP synthesis. Electron Transport Chain: Fermentation: anaerobic reactions that convert the pyruvic acid produced by the glycolysis into lactic acid or alcohol and CO2. Glycolysis: reactions, carried out in the cytoplasm, that break down glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid, producing two ATP molecules; does not require oxygen but can proceed when oxygen is present. Intermembrane Space: The fluid filled space between the inner and outer membranes of mitochondrion. Krebs Cycle: a cyclic series of reactions, occurring in the matrix of mitochondria, in which the acetyl groups from the pyruvic acids produced by glycolysis are broken down to CO2 , accompanied by the formation of ATP and electron carriers also called citric acid cycle. Matrix: the fluid contained within the inner membrane of mitochondrion.
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Chapter 40: Vocabulary Fission: asexual reproduction by dividing the body into two smaller, complete organisms. Follicle: in the ovary of female mammals, the oocyte and its surrounding accessory cells. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): a hormone, produced by the anterior pituitary, that stimulates spermatogenesis in males and the development of the follicle in females. Genital Herpes: a sexually transmitted disease, caused by a virus, that can cause painful blisters on the genitals and surrounding skin. Gonad: an organ where reproductive cells are formed; in males, the testes, and in females, the ovaries.
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This note was uploaded on 05/30/2011 for the course BIO 1320 taught by Professor Farr during the Spring '08 term at Texas State.

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EX4 Terms - Chapter 8: Vocabulary Adenosine Tr iphosphate...

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