Chapter 5 Notes - 1 Criminal Justice 2350 Court Systems and...

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1 Criminal Justice 2350 Court Systems and Criminal Procedure Chapter 5: Pretrial Proceedings Key Terms: Former acquittal- a defense based on double jeopardy in which defendant claims that he or she has been acquitted of the charged offense Grand jury- an investigative body that meets to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to support an indictment against a defendant. The grand jury may also investigate the conduct of public officials and agencies Indictment- a written statement charging the defendant or defendants named therein with the commission of an indictable offense, presented to the court by a grand jury, endorsed “A True Bill,” and signed by the foreperson. The term indictment includes presentment Nolo Contendere- a plea of no contest that supports a conviction if accepted by the judge Preliminary hearing- a proceeding before a judicial officer to determine if a crime has been committed, whether the crime occurred within the jurisdiction of the court, and whether there are reasonable grounds to believe that the defendant committed the crime Right of discovery- the right of either a prosecutor or a defendant to discover certain evidence in possession of the other party Transactional immunity- immunity granted to force a witness to testify in which the witness cannot be prosecuted for the criminal act covered by his or her testimony Use and derivative immunity- immunity granted to force a witness to testify whereby his or her testimony or any other information obtained as the result of the testimony cannot be used against him or her PRELIMINARY HEARING - Preliminary Hearing:  a proceeding before a judicial officer to determine if a crime has been  committed, whether the crime occurred within the jurisdiction of the court, and whether there are  reasonable grounds to believe that the defendant committed the crime -Before a preliminary hearing may be held, the defendant must have a complaint filed against  him or her charging the defendant with a felony. -If the defendant enters a plea of not guilty, the judge will set the case over for a preliminary  hearing.
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2 -At the preliminary hearing, the prosecuting attorney presents evidence against the accused.  This evidence may consist of witnesses and such physical evidence as the prosecutor deems  appropriate. -A defendant may waive a preliminary hearing in most jurisdictions. -In most states, if there is a grand jury indictment, no preliminary hearing is required. Bound over Trial -If the Magistrate concludes that the evidence presented establishes probable cause that the  defendant committed the crime(s) charged, the magistrate will bind or hold the defendant over  for trial.
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