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Chapter 10 Notes - C riminal Justice 2350 Court Systems and...

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Criminal Justice 2350 Court Systems and Criminal Procedure Chapter 10: Courtroom Evidence Key Terms: Character Evidence: evidence of a person’s character that tends to prove that the individual did or did not commit a certain act. Daubert Test: a test used by the courts to determine if certain scientific evidence should be admitted into evidence. Declarant: an individual making a formal statement. Hearsay: an out of court statement which is offered in court to prove the truth of the matter asserted. Impeachment: the attempt to limit or discredit evidence that has been admitted. Judicial Notice: the act of a court in accepting certain facts without the necessity to present evidence to prove them, such as the fact that New York is a state, a fact that a court can take judicial notice of. Lay Witness: a non-expert witness Limited Admissibility: evidence that is admitted for a limited purpose only Preliminary Questions: basic questions like name and address asked of a witness when the witness is first called to testify. Rape Shield Laws: laws designed to protect a rape victim and limit the admission of the victim’s prior sexual activity. Relevant Evidence: evidence having any tendency to make the existence of any fact that is consequence to the determination of the action more probable or less probable that it would be without the evidence. Introduction -The study of evidence is a study of regulation of the process of proving facts.  -Evidentiary rules should be constructed in a manner to attempt to secure fairness and  administration, elimination of unjustifiable expense and delay, and promotion of growth and  development of the law of evidence to the end that the truth may be ascertained and  proceedings justify determined.  -The 2 basic themes found in the Federal Rules are: 1. The Rules favor admissibility of evidence 2. The trial judge has considerable discretion as to the admissibility of evidence. -There are 2 types of evidence 1
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Criminal Justice 2350 Court Systems and Criminal Procedure 1. direct 2. circumstantial all evidence is relevant if it proves or disproves a fact.” Hearsay Rule Hearsay:  an out of court statement which is offered in court to prove the truth of the matter  asserted. EVIDENTIARY DEFINITIONS Statement:  a statement is (1) an oral or written assertion or (2) nonverbal conduct of a person if  it is intended by the person as an assertion. Declarant:  a declarant is a person who makes a statement.  Hearsay:  hearsay is a statement, other than one made by the declarant while testifying at the  trial or hearing, offered in evidence to prove the truth of the matter asserted.
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