Chapter 13 Notes - Criminal Justice 2350 Court Systems and...

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Criminal Justice 2350 Court Systems and Criminal Procedure Chapter 13: Trial Procedure Key Terms: Cross-Examination: the examination of a witness by the party that did not call the witness; used to weaken the witness’s testimony. Depositions: a form of pretrial discovery in which a witness is questioned under oath and the other parties are given an opportunity to be present and ask questions. Used more in civil than in criminal cases. Direct examination: the initial questioning of a witness by the party that originally called the witness. Directed Verdict: a verdict by the judge when the judge concludes that the evidence is such that a jury could not legally find the defendant guilty. Preponderance of Evidence: the normal burden of proof required in civil cases where the moving party is required to establish that it was more likely than not that a certain event occurred or a fact exists. Reasonable Doubt : the burden of proof that is required before a defendant may be convicted of a crime. The burden is on the prosecution to prove a fact with a high degree of certainty. Rebuttal Evidence: evidence to rebut or negate evidence presented by the other party. Redirect Examination : the examination by the party who called the witness to cover matters that were covered in the cross-examination. Subpoena duces tecum: a subpoena of a witness that also orders the witness to bring certain documents to court. Syndromes : mental conditions that are often presented to excuse or justify the conduct of the defendant. Opening Statements -In order that the jury may be informed of both the charge against the defendant and the plea  entered, it is the policy of most courts to have the accusatory pleading read to the jury. PROSECUTING ATTORNEY OPENING STATEMENT -After the jury has been sworn in and the charge read to them, the prosecution is the first to  present its evidence. The prosecution goes first because they have the burden of proof. -An opening statement will be made in most instances, since it provides an opportunity to  explain further the charge against the defendant.  -The prosecuting attorney is able to outline the evidence planned for trial, thereby allowing the  jury to more intelligently follow the presentation of the prosecution’s side of the case.    1
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Criminal Justice 2350 Court Systems and Criminal Procedure DEFENSE COUNSEL OPENING STATEMENT -After the prosecuting attorney has completed the opening statement, the judge will often ask  whether the defense attorney wishes to make an opening statement. -Many defense attorneys believe that it is a mistake to make an opening statement before the  prosecution has completed its side of the presentation of evidence, since the defense strategy  may change.
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