Chapter 16 Notes

Chapter 16 Notes - Chapter 16: Sentencing Key Terms: Cruel...

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Chapter 16: Sentencing Key Terms: Cruel and Unusual Punishment: The Constitutional protection contained in the eight amendment that prohibits the imposition of punishment that is considered to be cruel or unusual. Definite Sentence: A sentence that has a specified period of confinement or definite terms. Deterrence: Punishment based on the goal of deterring future criminal activity. Indefinite sentence: A sentence that has to fixed term and may be adjusted to fit the offender. Indeterminate Sentence: A sentence in which the period of confinement or other punishment is to be determined based on the need of the offender. Probation: Placing a defendant on conditioned release subject to revocation if the defendant violates the terms of release. Rehabilitated: The conclusion that a defendant has been reformed. certain conditions, and upon compliance with the conditions the sentence is vacated. If the conditions are not complied with, the suspension us vacated and the sentence is imposed. Suspended Sentence: An adjudged sentence whose imposition is suspended under certain conditions, and upon compliance with the conditions the sentence is vacated. If the conditions are not complied with, the suspension is vacated and the sentence is imposed. History of Punishment THE BLOOD FEUD -The offended family member had the first and foremost responsibility to avenge the wrong.  -If the offender could not be located, then the revenge would be inflicted on other family  members.  -This procedure resulted in what is known as a blood feud.  -Retaliation during a blood feud was often brutal and usually ended in the death of the offender.  PROTECTION WITHIN A CHURCH -A study of early judicial procedure reveals that offenders in England were also subject to many  forms of severe punishment.  -Often to escape punishment, an offender entered a church for sanctuary from pursuers who  were attempting to inflict punishment. -The offender was safe as long as he or she remained inside the church.  1
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IMPRISIONMENT AS PUNISHMENT -Imprisonment was a means of holding the offender for trial and sentencing but not for  punishment.    PUNISHMENT IN EARLY AMERICA -As the colonies were being settled, the colonists brought with them much of the criminal  procedure that they had known in England.  -At that time, retribution, or vengeance, was still the philosophy behind punishment.  -The Constitution includes the Eight Amendment guarantee against cruel and unusual  punishment. - Cruel and Unusual Punishment:  The Constitutional protection contained in the eight  amendment that prohibits the imposition of punishment that is considered to be cruel or  unusual.  -Penalty reforms for convicted offenders began after the colonies achieved independence from  England.  -In 1786, the act was passed that provided for imprisonment and hard labor for many crimes that 
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Chapter 16 Notes - Chapter 16: Sentencing Key Terms: Cruel...

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