CHAPTER 1 NEGOTIATION - Negotiation refers to win-win...

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Negotiation refers to win-win situations such as the ones that occur when parties endeavor to find a mutually agreed solution to a difficult conflict. Negotiation is a very complex social process, and many of the most essential elements that create negotiation do not take place during the negotiation; they take place before the parties begin to negotiate. Negotiation situations have the same characteristics, whether peace negotiations between nations at war, or business negotiations between buyers and sellers. The following six characteristics are common to all negotiation situations. One. There are two or more parties. Negotiation is a process between individuals, within groups, and between groups. Two. There is a conflict of needs and desires between two or more parties. What one person wants or needs is not necessarily what the other person wants or needs, and the parties must find acceptable ways to resolve the conflict. Three. The parties negotiate by choice. Negotiation is mainly a voluntary process, and people negotiate because they expect something better from the process than just accepting what the other side offers them. Four. When we negotiate we expect a give-and-take process that is fundamental to the definition of negotiation itself. Parties will normally reach a compromise or create a solution that satisfies all the parties. Five. The parties prefer to negotiate and reach agreement rather than engage in open and endless fighting or take the dispute to a higher authority to resolve it. Negotiation takes place when the parties prefer to create their own solution for conflict resolution when there is no set of rules or when the parties choose to deviate from the rules. Six. Successful negotiation involves the management of tangibles and the resolution of intangibles. Tangibles include price or terms of agreement. Examples of intangibles are: The need to win at all costs; The need to look good or competent; The need to defend an important principle or precedent; and The need to appear fair or honorable or to protect one’s reputation.
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One important attribute of negotiation is that the parties need each other to achieve their desired goals. When the parties depend on each other to achieve their own preferred outcome, they are interdependent. Relationships between parties may be characterized in one of three ways:
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CHAPTER 1 NEGOTIATION - Negotiation refers to win-win...

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