Amesa_An Analysis of Determinants of Adoption of Clean Energy Cooking Technologies and Energy Source - AN iANALYSIS iOF iDETERMINANTS iOF iADOPTION iOF

Amesa_An Analysis of Determinants of Adoption of Clean Energy Cooking Technologies and Energy Source

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Unformatted text preview: AN iANALYSIS iOF iDETERMINANTS iOF iADOPTION iOF iCLEAN iENERGY i COOKING iTECHNOLOGIES iAND iENERGY iSOURCES iIN iKIBERA, iNAIROBI i COUNTY i- iKENYA AMESA iREUBEN iOMEGA A56/82008/2015 Department iof iAgricultural iEconomics Faculty iof iAgriculture University iof iNairobi A ithesis isubmitted iin ipartial ifulfilment iof ithe irequirements ifor ithe iaward iof ia iDegree iof i Master iin iScience iin iAgricultural iand iApplied iEconomics iof ithe iUniversity iof iNairobi. December i2019 DECLARATION This ithesis iis imy ioriginal iwork iand ihas inot ibeen ipresented ifor iany idegree iin iany iother i university Reuben iOmega iAmesa i Reg. iNo.: iA56/82008/2015 Signature i…………………. Date i………………………… This iresearch ithesis ihas ibeen isubmitted ifor iexamination iwith iour iapproval ias iuniversity i supervisors. Prof. iJohn iMburu Department iof iAgricultural iEconomics, i University iof iNairobi Signature i………………………………... Date i…………………………… Prof. iHenry iM. iMutembei Wangari iMaathai iInstitute ifor iPeace iand iEnvironmental iStudies, i University iof iNairobi Signature i……………………… Date…………………………… Dr iMartin iOchieng iOulu Department iof iAgricultural iEconomics, i University iof iNairobi Signature i………………………………... Date i…………………………… i DEDICATION This ithesis iis idedicated ito imy ifamily: imy iparents, iMr iand iMrs iAmesa iand imy isiblings iJude i and iMiriam. ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First iand iforemost, iI iwould ilike ito ithank iGod ifor igood ihealth iand iabilities iHe ihas igifted ito ime i with. iIt iis ifor iHis iglory ithat ithis ithesis ihas ibecome ia ireality. I iam itruly iindebted ito imy isupervisors iProf. iJohn iMburu, iProf. iHenry iMutembei iand iDr iMartin i Oulu ifor itheir iguidance iand ipatience ithroughout ithe idevelopment iof ithis ithesis. iTheir isupport i and iconstructive icriticisms ihave ibeen iof igreat iimportance iin ithe idevelopment iof ithis ithesis. Special ithanks igo ito iWangari iMaathai iInstitute ifor iPeace iand iEnvironmental iStudies ifor ithe i financial isupport iprovided itowards ithe idevelopment iof ithis ithesis. iThis istudy iwould inot ihave i been ipossible iwithout iyour isupport iand iI iam ivery igrateful ifor ithe itrust iand iconfidence. I iwould ialso ilike ito ithank ithe ientire iFaculty iof iAgriculture iand imore ispecifically ithe i Department iof iAgricultural iEconomics ifor ifacilitating ithe idevelopment iof ithis ithesis. iSpecial i thanks igo ito iall ithe ilecturers iwho itaught iand iguided ime ithroughout ithe iMaster’s iprogram iand i to imy icolleagues iin ithe idepartment ifor itheir ifriendship, imoral isupport iand icollaboration. I iwould ilike ito irecognize iand ithank iall ithe irespondents iin iKibera, iNairobi iCounty, ithe ifield i guides iand ithe ilocal iadministration ifor imaking ithe ifieldwork ia isuccess. iSpecial ithanks igo ito i the ienumerators iwhose ihard iwork iand iencouragement imade ithe idata icollection ia isuccess. iii ABSTRACT Acknowledgement iof ithe ieffects iof iclimate ichange ion ithe iplanet iover ithe ilast i3 idecades iled ito i the iUnited iNations iFramework iConvention ion iClimate iChange i(U.N.F.C.C.C.) iand ithe iKenyan i government ito ichampion ifor iclimate ichange imitigation. iOne iof ithe imechanisms iidentified iby i the igovernment itowards iclimate ichange imitigation iwas ithe iincreased iuse iof iclean ienergy i technologies i(CETs). iThese iare itechnologies ithat ihave ia isignificantly ilower ieffect ion ithe i environment ithan itheir ialternatives. iAt ithe ihousehold ilevel, ithe iclean ienergy itechnologies iare i mostly iused ifor icooking iand ilighting ipurposes iand ithey iplay ia irole iin iimproving ithe iwelfare iof i the ihousehold imembers ithrough iimproved ifuel iefficiency iand ilower ienergy icosts. iThough ithese i technologies iare iavailable, itheir iadoption ihas ibeen ilow ieven ias idemand ifor ienergy iis i continuously iincreasing. iThis istudy iaimed iat icharacterizing ithe idifferent iclean ienergy i technologies iused ifor icooking iand iassessing ithe iunique ifactors ithat iinfluence ithe idecision ito i adopt imultiple iclean ienergy icooking itechnologies. iThe istudy iwas ibased ion ithe iRandom iUtility i Model i(RUM) iand iwas isupported iby ithe ienergy istack imodel. iMultistage isampling iwas iused ito i get ia isample iof i378 irespondents iin iKibera; ia ilow iincome iand idensely ipopulated iarea iin ithe i outskirts iof iNairobi. iThe iKenya iceramic ijiko iwas ifound ito ibe ithe imost iadopted icooking i technology iwhile icharcoal iwas ifound ito ibe ithe imost iused icooking ienergy isource. iThe ikey i decisions ion icooking itechnologies iand ienergy isources iadopted iby ithe ihousehold iwere imade iby i both imale iand ifemale imembers iin ivarying iproportions. iThe iadoption idecisions iof icooking i technologies iwere ifound ito ibe iinfluenced iby ia ivariety iof itechnologies’ itraits. iUsing ithe iPoisson i regression imodel, ithe isex iof ithe iindividual iwho idid imost iof ithe icooking iwas ifound ito ibe ia i statistically isignificant ifactor iin ithe iadoption iof imultiple iclean ienergy icooking itechnologies. i The iprices iof ithe icooking itechnologies, ias iwell ias ithe iprices iof ithe icooking ienergy isources, i were ialso ifound ito ihave ia istatistically isignificant ieffect ion ithe iadoption iof imultiple icooking i technologies. i To i facilitate i the i adoption i of i clean i energy i cooking i technologies i (CECTs), iv i the v study iadvocates ifor iregulation iof iclean ienergy icooking itechnologies iand ienergy isource iprices i to imake ithem imore iaffordable ito ithe ilow-income iearners. iInvestment iin ithe iinnovation iof i cheaper iand icleaner icooking itechnologies iis ialso irecommended ito iencourage ifurther iadoption. i The istudy ialso irecommends ithe iimprovement iof iaccess ito ithe iCECTs iin ithe iarea ithrough iclean i energy ientrepreneurship iprograms iin ithe iarea iand ithis iwill ifacilitate ieconomic iempowerment; i making i them i more i likely i to i finance i a i portion i of i the i energy i needs i of i the i household. vi TABLE iOF iCONTENTS DECLARATION ........................................................................................................................ i DEDICATION ........................................................................................................................... ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................................ iii ABSTRACT.............................................................................................................................. iv LIST iOF iTABLES ..................................................................................................................... x LIST iOF iFIGURES................................................................................................................... xi ACRONYMS ........................................................................................................................... xii DEFINITION iOF iTERMS ...................................................................................................... xiii CHAPTER iONE ........................................................................................................................ 1 1.0. INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 1 1.1. Background ......................................................................................................................... 1 1.1.2 Adoption iof iClean iEnergy iCooking iTechnologies .................................................. 2 1.1.3. Risks iassociated iwith ithe ilack iof iuse iof iclean ienergy icooking itechnologies iin ithe i household............................................................................................................................... 3 1.1.4. The irole iof iCECT iin iclimate ichange imitigation iand ienvironmental iconservation ....... 4 1.1.5. Adoption iof iclean ienergy isources ................................................................................ 5 1.1.6. Energy iconsumption iin iKenya ..................................................................................... 6 1.1.7. Implications iof ihousehold ienergy iconsumption ion iagricultural iproductivity .............. 7 1.2. Statement iof ithe iresearch iproblem ...................................................................................... 8 1.3. Research iObjectives ............................................................................................................ 9 1.4. Research iquestions .............................................................................................................. 9 vii 1.5. Justification ifor ithe istudy .................................................................................................. 10 CHAPTER iTWO ..................................................................................................................... 12 2.0. LITERATURE iREVIEW ................................................................................................. 12 2.1. Household ienergy iconsumption ........................................................................................ 12 2.2.1. Types iof iclean ienergy icooking itechnologies iin ithe iKenyan imarket........................... 14 2.2.1.1. Biomass iclean ienergy icooking itechnologies ....................................................... 14 2.2.1.2. Electrical iclean ienergy icooking itechnologies ..................................................... 16 2.2.1.3. Biogas iclean ienergy icooking itechnologies ......................................................... 17 2.2.1.4. Liquefied iPetroleum iGas i(LPG) iclean ienergy icooking itechnologies.................. 17 2.2.2. Benefits iof iCECT iuse................................................................................................. 18 2.2.2 i1. iHealth ibenefits iof iclean ienergy icooking itechnologies ........................................ 18 2.2.2.2. iTime iand ilabour-saving iproperties iof iclean ienergy icooking itechnologies .......... 19 2.3. Clean ienergy isources iused ifor icooking ............................................................................. 21 2.3.1. Biomass 21 2.3.2. Electricity ................................................................................................................... 22 2.3.3. Liquefied iPetroleum iGas i(LPG) ................................................................................ 23 2.3.4. Biogas 25 2.3.5. Briquettes ................................................................................................................... 26 2.4. Review iof ihypothesized ivariables ithat iinfluence ithe iadoption iof iCECTs ......................... 27 2.5. Theoretical iframework ...................................................................................................... 32 CHAPTER iTHREE ................................................................................................................. 35 3.0. iRESEARCH iMETHODOLOGY ...................................................................................... 35 viii 3.1 iConceptual iframework ....................................................................................................... 35 3.2. Study iarea.......................................................................................................................... 37 3.3. Research idesign ................................................................................................................ 38 3.3.1. Sample isize .................................................................................................................... 38 3.3.2. Sampling iProcedure ................................................................................................... 39 3.3.3. Data icollection, icapture iand ianalysis ......................................................................... 40 3.4. Data iAnalysis .................................................................................................................... 40 CHAPTER iFOUR .................................................................................................................... 44 4.0. RESULTS iAND iDISCUSSION ....................................................................................... 44 4.1. Socio-economic ihousehold icharacteristics ....................................................................... 44 4.2. Characterization iof ithe icooking itechnologies iadopted iin iKibera ...................................... 46 4.2.1. Cooking itechnologies iadopted iin iKibera ................................................................... 46 4.2.2. Choice ion imost iimportant icooking itechnology .......................................................... 47 4.2.4. Reason ifor ithe iadoption iof ispecific itechnologies ....................................................... 49 4.2.5. Safety iranking iof ithe iadopted icooking itechnologies .................................................. 50 4.2.6. Considerations imade iin ithe ichoice iof icooking itechnologies ...................................... 51 4.3. Characterization iof ithe icooking ienergy isources iadopted iin iKibera .................................. 52 4.3.1. Revealed ipreference iamong ithe iadopted icooking ienergy isources ............................. 54 4.4. Climate ichange iawareness iand ieffect ion ichoices iof icooking ienergy itechnology .............. 54 4.5. A igendered iassessment iof ihousehold idecision imaking ion icooking ienergy itechnology iand i energy isources ......................................................................................................................... 56 4.6. Factors iinfluencing ithe iintensity iof iclean ienergy icooking itechnologies’ iadoption ........... 56 ix CHAPTER iFIVE...................................................................................................................... 60 5.0. SUMMARY, iCONCLUSION iAND iRECOMMENDATIONS ....................................... 60 5.1. Summary ........................................................................................................................... 60 5.2. Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 61 5.3. Policy iRecommendations .................................................................................................. 62 5.4. Areas ifor iFurther iResearch ................................................................................................ 64 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................ 66 APPENDIX .............................................................................................................................. 76 x LIST iOF iTABLES Table i1: i Hypothesized i effect i of i the iindependent i variables ion i the iintensity i of iCECT i adoption ..................................................................................................................................................43 Table i2: iHousehold itraits ......................................................................................................... 45 Table i3: iCooking itechnologies iadopted ................................................................................... 46 Table i4: iMost iimportant icooking itechnology ibased ion ithe iuse ................................................ 47 Table i5: iCooking itechnology icombinations ............................................................................. 48 Table i6: iReason ifor icooking itechnology iadoption ................................................................... 49 Table i7: iCooking itechnology isafety iranking ............................................................................ 50 Table i8: iCooking ienergy isource iadoption ................................................................................ 53 Table i9: iRank iof icooking ienergy isources iby ithe iadopters ........................................................ 54 Table i10: iSource iof iawareness ion iclimate ichange ................................................................... 55 Table i11:Gender iaspect iof ihousehold icooking ienergy idecision imaking .................................. 56 Table i12: iPoisson iregression icoefficients iand imarginal ieffects iof ithe iindependent ivariablesi57 x LIST iOF iFIGURES Figure i1: iConceptual iframework iof ithe irelationship ibetween ithe idependent iand iindependent i variables iin iCECT iadoption ..................................................................................................... 35 Figure i2: iKibera iin iNairobi iCounty .......................................................................................... 38 Figure i3: iConsiderations imade iduring iadoption iof ia icooking itechnology................................ 51 xi ACRONYMS CETs Clean iEnergy iTechnologies CECTs Clean iEnergy iCooking iTechnologies COP Conference iof iParties DOI Diffusion iof iInnovation GHG Greenhouse iGas kWh Kilowatt-hour LPG Liquefied iPetroleum iGas SDG Sustainable iDevelopment iGoals RUM Random iUtility iModel UNDP United iNations iDevelopment iProgramme UNFCCC United iNations iFramework iConvention ion iClimate iChange US$ United iStates iDollar xii DEFINITION iOF iTERMS Clean ienergy icooking itechnologies i- iCooking isystems ithat iproduce inegligible ior iminimal i Energy isource i– ithis iis ithe icommodity ithat iis iused iby ia icooking itechnology ito igenerate i amounts iof ienvironmental ipollution icompared ito iconventional itechnologies heat ifor icooking Fuel iefficient i– iconsumption iof ilower iquantities iof ian ienergy isource. iThis ican ibe ithrough i more iintensive icombustion iof ithe ienergy isource ihence ilower iwaste irelative ito iother i combustion iprocesses iby iother icooking itechnologies xiii CHAPTER iONE 1.0. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background 1.1.1 Introduction ito iClean iEnergy iTechnologies Interests ito iencourage ithe iadoption iof iclean ienergy itechnologies iwith ithe igoal iof ireducing ithe i human ieffect ion iglobal iwarming ihave ibeen ion ithe irise iin itoday’s iworld. iGlobal iwarming ihas i been iviewed ias ia ikey ilimitation ito isustainable idevelopment iand ihas ian ieffect ion ithe isurvival i of ilife ion iearth iin ithe ilong irun. Clean ienergy itechnologies iare ielectricity iand/or iheat-producing isystems ithat iproduce i negligible ior iminimal iamounts iof ienvironmental ipollution icompared ito iconventional i technologies i(Herzog iet ial. i2001). iThese itechnologies ihave iboth ismall-scale iuses ifor i households ias iwell ias ilarge iscale icommercial iuses. iFor icommercial ipurposes, ithe itechnologies i are ioften iused iin ithe ilarge-scale iproduction iof ielectricity iwhile iat ithe ihousehold ilevel, ithe i technologies iare iused ifor ia iwider ivariety iof ipurposes. iThe imost icommon ihousehold iuses i include iheating, icooking iand ioff-grid ielectricity iproduction. iIn ithe igeneration iof ielectricity, i renewable ienergy isources isuch ias isolar, igeothermal, iwind, itidal, iwave iand ihydro-power iare i often iused idue ito itheir ieconomies iof iscale ibenefits. iTheir iutilization iis imeant ito iincrease ithe i amount iof ielectricity igoing iinto ithe inational igrid ihowever ithe iimprovement iin isolar iand iwind i power igeneration ihas iled ito ithe idevelopment iof ihousehold ielectricity isolutions ithat iare icost- i effective iat ithe ihousehold ilevel...
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