5/13 anthro 2a lec and reading notes

5/13 anthro 2a lec and reading notes - (05/13 05/18 Mirror...

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(05/13 - 05/18) Mirror for Humanity: Ch. 10, The World System and Colonialism The World System today’s world system: * modern world system , a world in which nations are economically and politically interdependent in international trade during 15 th c. led to the * capitalist world economy, a single world system committed to production for sale or exchange with the purpose of maximizing profits, not supplying for domestic needs o * capital : wealth or resources invested in business with the intent to use for profit world-system theory, Fernand Braudel ( Civilization and Capitalism, 15 th - 18 th Century ) o key claim— an identifiable social system extends beyond individual countries o a society consists of subsystems hierarchy of world system based on power, Wallerstein o * core: dominant position, strongest, most powerful, most complex, most profitable o * semiperiphery: industrialized but lack power and economic dominance ex: Brazil (semi) exports cars to Nigeria (periph) and coffee to US (core) o * periphery: least privileged/powerful, produces raw materials and human labor in cheap labor from periph and semi to core countries o ex: farm labor from Mexico to USA; outsourcing of jobs in India by USA The Emergence of the World System “discovery” of the new world by Spain and Portugal o outsourcing by Europeans in Brazil and the Caribbean for prod. of sugarcane development in 17 th c. of * monocrop production , a plantation economy based on a single cash crop o beginning of production beyond immediate needs o in demand for cotton spurred development of transatlantic slave trade and slave labor Industrialization Industrial Revolution (England, 1750): transformation of ‘traditional’ to ‘modern’ societies through industrialization of economy o developed from the * domestic system of manufacture/home-handicraft system, in which entrepreneurs provided raw materials for workers to produce in their homes agrarian societies industrial societies o fueled by transatlantic trade Causes of the Industrial Revolution began with cotton products, iron and pottery (cheap staple goods) o fueled in production, urban growth and a new kind of city began in England rather than France
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o French able to production * without innovating and adopting a new system reasons behind industrial growth o industrialization population in speed of development o Britain favored for importation and exportation due to abundance of natural resources (coal and iron ore) and navigable waterways and coasts o cultural values and religion of English middle class (Protestant nonconformists) encouraged industry, inventiveness, willing to accept change Socioeconomic Effects of Industrialization mixed and uneven; national income 3x (1700-1815) and 30x (by 1939) o wages of workers originally higher, then recruitment of cheap labor in poor areas o decline in living conditions (Charles Dickens, Hard Times ) Industrial Stratification
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