Midterm 1 Review Sheet

Midterm 1 Review Sheet - Midterm 1 Review Sheet Chapters 1...

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Midterm 1 Review Sheet Chapters 1 and 2 What is Psychology? There has been no complete definition formed but according to the book, psychology is referred to as the study of the mind and brain. Psychology is a Science It is the scientific study of the individuals' behavior and mental processes What do psychologists do? Psychologists study the mind and brain. How do we study psychology? As psychology moved away from its philosophical roots, psychologists began to employ more and more scientific methods to study human behavior. Today, researchers employ a variety of scientific methods, including experiments, correlational studies, longitudinal studies and others to test, explain and predict behavior. Basic vs. applied research Basic Research Research that explores questions that are of interest to psychologists but are not intended to have immediate, real-world application Applied Research Research that psychologists conduct to solve practical problems Research that has clear, practical application Common sense vs. science Common Sense Our intuition about how the world works. Problems with intuition Confirmation Bias- one believing more in data that supports one's hypothesis rather than data that disproves it. "see what you want to see" Belief Perseverance Hindsight Bias- predicting things after they happen Naïve Realism Science Explain how the world works with a large number of findings Generate hypotheses Empirical Objective mearsurements Falsifiable
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Allows theories to be constantly tested The scientific method Steps in research Formulate hypothesis- prediction based on theory and experience Design study- test of hypotheis Collect the Data- Where and how will the data be collected? Analyze data- Statistics Disseminate the Results- And revise theory, if necessary Clever Hans Some scientist tried to teach his horse Hans various subjects the horse however picked up on social cues to answer the questions rather than knowledge Idiomotor effect- your thoughts affect your actions Observer Expectancy Effects Tendency for subjects to behave in certain ways based on their perception of an experiment. How do we compensate for biases? Be skeptical “Blind” observers Test a counter hypothesis Goals of psychology Description Prediction Control Explanation Laboratory vs. field studies Laboratory Study Controlled Artificial Field Study Natural Hard to control People react differently in a lab and naturally Different ways of collecting data Observational methods
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Asking- based methods Tests of functioning Blind and double-blind experiments Blind Method followed such that the participants is not aware of who is in the experimental or control groups while the experiment is going on. Double Blind
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This note was uploaded on 05/31/2011 for the course PSC 1 taught by Professor Prokosch during the Winter '08 term at UC Davis.

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Midterm 1 Review Sheet - Midterm 1 Review Sheet Chapters 1...

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