part 12 body composition and nutrition

part 12 body composition and nutrition - Lecture 12: Body...

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Lecture 12: Body Composition and Nutrition What are the different nutrients needed by the body? What are the roles of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the sports diet? What is the glycemic index and how is it determined? What are some of the vital functions of water? What are the different routes of water loss during exercise? What are the benefits of fluid replacement during exercise? Is the thirst mechanism an effective way to determine and prevent dehydration? Lecture 12: Body Composition and Nutrition What are the 3 models of body composition? How would you describe and compare each model? When determining densitometry measurements, what is the relationship of fat to water? Why is it important to consider body fat composition athletic performance? How does body fat composition differ with the type of sport? What are some of the adverse effects that may result from an attempt to dramatically lower body fat composition (severe weight loss)? Six Nutrient Classes Fat Protein Carbohydrate Water Minerals (Vitamins)
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Carbohydrate (CHO) Classified as a monosaccharide, disaccharide, or polysaccharide Major source of energy, particularly during high- intensity exercise Regulates fat and protein metabolism Exclusive energy source for the nervous system Synthesized into muscle and liver glycogen Sources include grains, fruit, vegetables, milk, and concentrated sweets Relationship Between Preexercise Muscle Glycogen Content and Exercise Time to Exhaustion The Glycemic Index (GI) The glycemic index (GI) refers to the increase in blood glucose and insulin in response to a standard amount of food GI reference value is the blood sugar concentration after the ingestion of 50 g of glucose or white bread GI = 100 x (blood glucose response over 2 h to 50 g of test food / blood glucose response over 2 h to 50 g of glucose or white bread)
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Glycemic Index GI value Example foods High GI >70 Sport drinks, jelly beans, baked potato Moderate GI 56-70 Pastry, pita bread, bananas, regular ice cream Low GI 55 White spaghetti, kidney beans, milk, apples, pears, peanuts Influence of Exercise Intensity on Muscle Glycogen Stores Adapted, by permission, from A. Jeukendrup and M. Gleeson, 2004, Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance (Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics). Original data from Gol nick, Piehl, and Saltin. CHO Intake During Exercise Performance improves when athletes are given CHO feedings during exercise lasting 1-4 h Possible mechanisms include: – Preservation of liver glycogen – Promotion of glycogen synthesis during exercise – Increased reliance on blood glucose for energy late in the exercise bout – Enhanced central nervous system function
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CHO Consumption After Exercise Improves glycogen resynthesis rates Most effective when given during the first two hours of recovery May be enhanced by the addition of protein Fat Forms include: triglycerides, free fatty acids,
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part 12 body composition and nutrition - Lecture 12: Body...

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