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4u c7.6 Solubility Dynamics

4u c7.6 Solubility Dynamics - SOLUBILITY DYNAMICS Unit 3...

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SOLUBILITY DYNAMICS Unit 3 Chapter 7.6 Solutions and solubility The solvent is always the substance that is present in greatest amount. If we are referring to a solid solute and a liquid solvent we are talking about SOLUBILITY. If we are referring to a liquid dissolving another liquid we are talking about MISCIBILITY. Solutions are not always liquid. Indeed they may be in: a) liquid phase b) solid phase c) gas phase Air is a solution of several gases. Since nitrogen is present in the greatest proportion we could refer to it as the solvent. Alloys are solutions of solids in solids. E.g. Brass is a solution of zinc in copper. Amalgams are solutions of a liquid in a solid. E.g. A dental amalgam is a solution of mercury liquid in several other metals. Solutions of Covalent Compounds A) Covalent liquids dissolving in liquids The following patterns are seen: 1) If the molecules of a liquid are polar, then they will be easily miscible with water. E.g. Ethanol, acetone, phenol all have polar groupings and will readily mix with water. 2) Molecules of non-polar covalent liquids such as hydrocarbon fuels, and carbon halides like carbon tetrafluoride are not miscible with water. Basically covalent liquid molecules are easily miscible with solvents if the intermolecular bonds in the solute and solvent are the same . E.g. both hexane and carbon tetrachloride are non polar covalent liquids in which the molecules are held together by dispersion forces. Therefore, they are easily miscible with one another. However, water molecules are held together by hydrogen bonds (a special case of dipole-dipole interactions) so hexane (without hydrogen bonds) will be immiscible with water. Polar covalent molecules that contain N or O plus H mix particularly well with water, because they form hydrogen bonds with each other. Therefore, they also form hydrogen bonds with water molecules. E.g. ethanol But if a molecule has a polar end and a long non-polar part, the latter can dominate the molecular properties.
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