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4u c8.1 Acid Base Theories

4u c8.1 Acid Base Theories - Acid-Base Equilibrium Chapter...

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Acid-Base Equilibrium Chapter 8 Arrhenius Acids and Bases acid – substance that produces H + (aq) when dissolve in H 2 O (l) base – substance that produces OH - (aq) when dissolve in H 2 O (l) Definition based on substances that form acidic/basic solutions E.g. HCl (aq) ⎯ → > % 99 H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Strong acid (100% ionization) CH 3 COOH (aq) ⎯ → % 3 . 1 H + (aq) + CH 3 COO - (aq) Weak acid (<50% ionization) NaOH (aq) ⎯ → > % 99 Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) Strong base (100% dissociation) Problems with using the Arrhenius theory of acids and bases 1) The Salt Problem According to the Arrhenius theory, only substances containing H + (aq) could be classified as acids, and only those containing OH - (aq) could be classified as bases. Furthermore, salts should theoretically be neutral. But this is not always true. Although many salts are neutral, there are others that dissolve in water to give acidic solutions and some that dissolve to give basic solutions. E.g. solutions of sodium carbonate and ammonia are basic, yet they do not contain hydroxide ions.
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