Motives - Motives: Needs, wants, interests and desires that...

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Motives: Needs, wants, interests and desires that propel people in certain directions. Drive Theories: Clark Hull: Idea derived from Walter Cannon’s observation that organisms want to maintain homeostasis: A state of physiological stability Drive: Internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce the tension. Tension: Disruption in equilibrium Motivation: Lead to drive reduction Example: You are hungry 1. You go without food for some time and experience discomfort 2. Internal tension (drive)=go get food 3. Eating reduces the drive and resotres equilibrium Incentive Theories: External stimuli regulate motivational states Incentive: an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior Drive=internal states=push in direction Incentive=external=pull in a direction Drive: Within organism Incentive: The source is outside of organism. Does not operate according to homeostasis. Downplay biology factors Expectancy value models of motivation: Incentive theories that take this reality into account (you can’t always get what you want) Accordingly: Motivation depends on: 1) Expectancy about one’s chances of attaining the incentive 2) Value of desired incentive Evolutionary Theories: NS favors behavior that max. Reproductive success
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Motivation is a product of evolution and anatomical Motivation: can best be understood in terms of an adaptive problem Range of Human Motives Only limited amount of biological motives…unlimited amount of social motives. Motivation of Hunger and Eating: Hunger involves: 1. Brain 2. Blood Sugar Level 3. Hormones 1.Brain regulation -Hypothalamus( regulates biological needs) -2 Parts of hypothalamus regulate hunger but are not just on/off regulation -Different parts cause different things to happen 2. Glucose and Digestive Regulation Glucose: Simple sugar=energy Glucostats: Neurons sensitive to glucose in the surrounding fluid Glucostatic theory : Fluxs in blood sugar level are monitored in brain by glucostats sensitive to glucose in surrounding fluid. -Stomach cells have receptors 3. Hormone Regulation -Insulin by pancreas must be in all cells to get sugar out of blood -Secrete insulin, increase in hunger -Sight of food can cause it to increase -flux is sensitive to fat stores. -Leptin: Produced by fat cells and released into blood -High levels of fat generated, increase in leptin
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-Leptin provides information about fat stores -Leptin increase=hunger goes away Environmental factors in the regulation of Hunger 3 key factors: 1) Availabilty of food 2) Learned preferences and habits 3) Stress 1.Food Availability Most people say hunger: Drive- Biolgoical However, look at it as insentive! Tasty food makes you want to eat it. Sensory Specific Satiety
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This note was uploaded on 05/31/2011 for the course BIOL 100 taught by Professor Jackson during the Spring '11 term at York University.

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Motives - Motives: Needs, wants, interests and desires that...

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