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Logical Fallacies (1)

Logical Fallacies (1) - Some Common Fallacies Historians...

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Some Common Fallacies Historians Encounter (and Use) October 21, 2010 History 300 University of South Carolina
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Straw Man 1) Person A has position X. 2) Person B presents position Y (which is a distorted version of X). 3) Person B attacks position Y. 4) Therefore X is false/incorrect/flawed . Prof. Jones: "The university just cut our yearly budget by $10,000." Prof. Smith: "What are we going to do?" Prof. Brown: "I think we should eliminate one of the teaching assistant positions. That would take care of it." Prof. Jones: "We could reduce our scheduled raises instead." Prof. Brown: " I can't understand why you want to bleed us dry like that, Jones Bill and Jill are arguing about cleaning out their closets: Jill: "We should clean out the closets. They are getting a bit messy." Bill: "Why, we just went through those closets last year. Do we have to clean them out everyday?" Jill: "I never said anything about cleaning them out every day. You just want too keep all your junk forever, which is just ridiculous.
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Ad Hominem "against the man" or "against the person“ 1) Person A makes claim X 2) Person B makes an attack on person A. 3) Therefore A's claim is false.
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Appeal to Authority 1) Person A is (claimed to be) an authority on subject S. 1) Person A makes claim C about subject S. 1) Therefore, C is true
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Appeal to Belief/Popularity 1) Most people believe that a claim, X, is true. 1) Therefore X is true.
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