Ch10_Outline - Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology,...

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Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology, 9e Tarbuck & Lutgens
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Crustal Deformation Earth, 9e - Chapter 10 Stan Hatfield Southwestern Illinois College
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Structural geology Structural geologists study the architecture and processes responsible for deformation of Earth’s crust A working knowledge of rock structures is essential to our modern way of life
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Deformation Deformation is a general term that refers to all changes in the original form and/or size of a rock body Most crustal deformation occurs along plate margins Deformation involves Force – that which tends to put stationary objects in motion or changes the motions of moving objects
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Deformation Deformation involves Stress - force applied to a given area Types of stress Compressional stress – shortens a rock body Tensional stress – tends to elongate or pull apart a rock unit Shear stress – produces a motion similar to slippage that occurs between individual playing cards when the top of the stack is moved relative to the bottom
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Deformation Strain – changes in the shape or size of a rock body caused by stress How rocks deform Rocks subjected to stresses greater than their own strength begin to deform by folding, flowing, or fracturing
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Deformation How rocks deform General characteristics of rock deformation Elastic deformation – the rock returns to nearly its original size and shape when the stress is removed Once the elastic limit (strength) of a rock is surpassed, it either flows ( ductile deformation ) or fractures ( brittle deformation )
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Deformation How rocks deform General characteristics of rock deformation Factors that influence the strength of a rock and how it will deform Temperature Confining pressure Rock type Time
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Ch10_Outline - Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology,...

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