Bio 111 Fall 10 Unit 5 - UNIT5 1 Bio111Fall2010...

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UNIT 5 Bio 111 Fall 2010 1
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DNA IS COMPOSED OF FOUR  NUCLEOTIDES DNA is made of chains of small subunits called  nucleotides Each nucleotide has three components: 1. Phosphate group 2. Deoxyribose sugar 3. One of four  nitrogen-containing bases Thymine Cytosine Adenine Guanine 2
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DNA IS COMPOSED OF FOUR  NUCLEOTIDES 3
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DNA FACTS In a DNA molecule, amounts of A = T, G = C DNA is made of two strands of nucleotides The deoxyribose and phosphate portions make up the  sugar-phosphate backbone 4
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HYDROGEN BONDS Hydrogen bonds hold certain nitrogenous base pairs  together A bonds with T, G bonds with C Bonding bases called  complementary base pairs Ladder-like structure of the two DNA strands are twisted into  double helix 5
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DNA REPLICATION All cells come from pre-existing cells Cells reproduce by dividing in half Each of two daughter cells gets an exact copy of  parent cell’s genetic information Duplication of the parent cell DNA is called  replication 7
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DNA REPLICATION DNA replication begins when  DNA helicases   separate the two strands Hydrogen bonds between bases are  broken Single Strand Binding Proteins bind to  the stands to keep them separate 8
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DNA REPLICATION A second strand of new DNA is synthesized along each  separated strand by  DNA polymerases,  which  position  free   nucleotides  across from complementary  nucleotides The new strand is always built in the 5  to 3   ˈ ˈ direction 9
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DNA REPLICATION Base pairing   is the foundation of DNA replication An adenine on one strand pairs with a thymine on the  other strand; a cytosine pairs with guanine If one strand reads ATG, the other reads TAC 11
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DNA REPLICATION The two resulting DNA  molecules have one old  parental strand and  one new strand  Semiconservative  Replication 12
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THE LINK BETWEEN DNA AND PROTEIN DNA contains the molecular blueprint of every cell Proteins are the “molecular workers” of the cell
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RNA INTERMEDIARIES DNA in eukaryotes is kept in the nucleus Protein synthesis occurs at ribosomes in the cytoplasm DNA information must be carried by an  intermediary   ( RNA ) from nucleus to cytoplasm
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RNA  RNA differs structurally from DNA RNA is single stranded RNA uses the sugar ribose RNA uses the nitrogenous base uracil (U) instead of thymine  (T)
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RNA  There are three types of RNA involved in protein  synthesis Messenger RNA  (mRNA) carries DNA gene information to  the ribosome Transfer RNA  (tRNA) brings amino acids to the ribosome Ribosomal RNA  (rRNA) is part of the structure of  ribosomes
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