Chapter 10 Sprig 2011 - Chapter 12 Patterns of Inheritance...

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Chapter 12 Patterns of Inheritance
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Gregor Mendel Father of Inheritance An Austrian monk Formulated the fundamental laws of heredity in the early 1860's.
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Mendel studied inherited traits in garden peas by making hybrids Studied pea plants: Could cross-pollinate ( cross offspring ), easy to cultivate, short generation time Studied 22 easy to see traits or characteristics that have unmistakably different forms (color - purple vs. white, height - tall vs. short, seed shape - smooth vs. wrinkled)
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Trait – A characteristic that is controlled by 2 alleles that are found on homologous chromosomes. Gene loci (locus – singular) – a specific location of a particular gene on a homologous chromosome Allele – Alternate forms of a gene that occur on homologous chromosomes at a specific gene locus.
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2 kinds of Alleles 1. A dominant allele masks or hides expression of a recessive allele; it is represented by an uppercase letter. Ex: R for right handed
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1. A recessive allele is an allele that exerts its effect only in the homozygous state; Its effect is masked by a dominant allele. It is represented by a lowercase letter. Whatever letter is denoted by the dominant allele, the recessive will be the lower case of that letter. Ex: r for left-handed
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2 Alleles Represent a Trait The trait will be represented by RR , Rr or rr Homozygous – two identical alleles for a trait Ex: RR or rr
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Homozygous dominant genotypes possess two dominant alleles for a trait (RR) and expresses the dominant trait. Homozygous recessive genotypes possess two recessive alleles for a trait (rr) and expresses the recessive trait.
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A Homozygous individual can only pass on one kind of gamete. Homozygous dominant can only pass on R or R Homozygous recessive can only pass on r or r
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Heterozygous genotypes possess one of each allele for a particular trait. EX: Rr . Expresses the dominant trait – The dominant allele masks the recessive. A Heterozygous individual can pass on both kinds of gametes ( R or r ).
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Mendel began his studies with a monohybrid cross A hybrid is the product of parent organisms that are true-breeding (or pure- breeding) for different forms of one trait. True-breeding – the alleles are the same PP or pp
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Monohybrid cross – Crossed 2 true- breeding individuals for two distinct forms of a trait. PP x pp He predicted what would happen with Punnent squares .
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The Punnett Square a simple method to calculate probable results of a genetic cross. P = Purple p = white
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PP x pp Gametes P or P p or p One individual goes on the top and the other goes on the side. Determine the gametes by drawing the Punnett square now.
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Calculate the Genotype and Phenotype Genotype refers to the genetic makeup of an individual in regard to a specific trait. It is represented by the letters: PP, Pp, or pp.
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Chapter 10 Sprig 2011 - Chapter 12 Patterns of Inheritance...

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