TALLY STICKS A tally (or tally stick) was an ancient memory aid device used to record and document numbers, quantities, or even messages. Tally sticks first appear as animal bones carved with notches, in the Upper Paleolithic, a notable example is the Ishango Bone. Historical reference is made by Pliny the Elder (AD 23–79) about the best wood to use for tallies, and by Marco Polo (1254–1324) who mentions the use of the tally in China. Tallies have been used for numerous purposes such as messaging and scheduling, and especially in financial and legal transactions, to the point of being currency. Principally there are two different kinds of tally sticks, the single and the split tally. A common form of the same kind of primitive counting device is seen in various kinds of prayer beads. The single tally stick was an elongated piece of bone, ivory, wood, or stone which is marked with a system of notches. The single tally stick serves predominantly mnemonic purposes. Related to the single tally concept are messenger sticks (e.g., Inuit tribes), the knotted cords, khipus or quipus, as used by the Inca. Herodotus (c. 485–425 BC) reported the use of a knotted cord by Darius I of Persia (c. 521–486 BC). ABACUS The history of computer begins with the birth of abacus which is believed to be the first computer. It is said that Chinese invented Abacus around 4,000 years ago. It was a wooden rack which has metal rods with beads mounted on them. The beads were moved by the abacus operator according to some rules to perform arithmetic calculations. Abacus is still used in some countries like China, Russia and Japan. NAPIER’S BONE It was a manually-operated calculating device which was invented by John Napier (1550-1617) of Merchiston. In this calculating tool, he used 9 different ivory strips or bones marked with numbers to multiply and divide. So, the tool became known as "Napier's Bones. It was also the first machine to use the decimal point.
SLIDE RULE A slide rule , also known as a slide ruler or a slipstick , is an extremely complex ruler that functions as an analog computer. By sliding various components of the ruler to align with each other, a slide rule can compute products, roots, logarithms, and the result of trigonometric functions. In the mid- 1600s , the linear slide rule was invented by Reverend William Oughtred and the inner slide rule was invented by Robert Bissaker. Until the invention of the pocket calculator in the 1960s , the slide rule was used by virtually every scientist and mathematician in the world. PASCALINE Pascaline is also known as Arithmetic Machine or Adding Machine. It was invented between 1642 and 1644 by a French mathematician-philosopher Biaise Pascal. It is believed that it was the first mechanical and automatic calculator. Pascal invented this machine to help his father, a tax accountant. It could only perform addition and subtraction. It was a wooden box with a series of gears and wheels. When a wheel is rotated one revolution, it rotates the neighboring wheel. A series of windows is given on the top of the wheels to read the totals.
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