1 CSCA0101 Computing Basics CSCA0101 COMPUTING BASICS Chapter 1 History of Computers
CSCA0101 Computing Basics History of Computers Topics 1. Definition of computer 2. Earliest computer 3. Computer History 4. Computer Generations
CSCA0101 Computing Basics History of Computers 3 Definition of Computer • Computer is a programmable machine. • Computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. • Computer is any device which aids humans in performing various kinds of computations or calculations.
Definition of Computer Three principles characteristic of computer: • It responds to a specific set of instructions in a well- defined manner. • It can execute a pre-recorded list of instructions. • It can quickly store and retrieve large amounts of data.
Earliest Computer • Originally calculations were computed by humans, whose job title was computers. • These human computers were typically engaged in the calculation of a mathematical expression. • The calculations of this period were specialized and expensive, requiring years of training in mathematics. • The first use of the word "computer" was recorded in 1613, referring to a person who carried out calculations, or computations, and the word continued to be used in that sense until the middle of the 20th century.
Tally sticks Tally Sticks A tally stick was an ancient memory aid device to record and document numbers, quantities, or even messages.
Abacus • An abacus is a mechanical device used to aid an individual in performing mathematical calculations. • The abacus was invented in Babylonia in 2400 B.C. • The abacus in the form we are most familiar with was first used in China in around 500 B.C. • It used to perform basic arithmetic operations.
Abacus Earlier Abacus Modern Abacus
John Napier Napier’s Bones Napier’s Bones • Invented by John Napier i n 1614. • Allowed the operator to multiply , divide and calculate square and cube roots by moving the rods around and placing them in specially constructed boards.
CSCA0101 Computing Basics History of Computers 10 William Oughtred Slide Rule Slide Rule • Invented by William Oughtred in 1622 .
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