chapter 4 cont. fall '08

chapter 4 cont. fall '08 - Chapter 4 cont Chapter Cell...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 cont. Chapter Cell Structure and Function Today we will Today Lecture on – Basic features of cells – Major features of prokaryotic cells – Major features of eukaryotic cells Cell Theory – Schwann & Schleiden 1837 3 part part 1. All organisms 1. 2. From preexisting cells 3. Smallest life Common to all cells Common Common to all cells Common Molecular components Plasma membrane DNA & Cytoplasm Energy and nutrients Small Common to all cells Common Molecular components Amino acids Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids RNA & DNA Water Ribosomes Common to all cells Common Molecular components Plasma membrane Made of 3 components Functions (3) • Separates environments • Regulate in/out • Cell communication Common to all cells Common Genetic blueprint Molecular Molecular DNA • code for proteins components components Plasma Plasma Made of membrane membrane • (Organelles) • Water Cytoplasm • Proteins • Filaments • Vacuoles • Salts • Nucleotides Common to all cells Common Molecular components Plasma membrane DNA & Cytoplasm Energy and nutrients From sun Build Replace Repair Common to all cells Common Molecular components Plasma membrane DNA & Cytoplasm Energy and nutrients Small Because of the area to volume ratio Because of diffusion’s slow rate Relative sizes of cells Only 2 basic types of cells Only Prokaryotes What Domains are they associated with? Eukaryotes Major features of prokaryotes Major Small Specialized Specialized surfaces surfaces Cytoplasm Cytoplasm – No organelles – Ribosomes Ribosomes No “true”nucleus No Nucleoid Nucleoid Plasmid Major features of prokaryotes Major Small Specialized Specialized surfaces surfaces Cytoplasm Cytoplasm – No organelles – Ribosomes Ribosomes No “true”nucleus No Nucleoid Nucleoid Plasmid Major features of eukaryotes Major Larger Larger Usually just a plasma membrane Cytoplasm Cytoplasm – Has organelles – Has cytoskeleton Has “true” nucleus – Strand chromosome Major categories of eukaryote cells Major Animal Animal Plant Major categories of eukaryote cells Major Animal Animal – – – – No cell wall No chloroplasts No central vacuole Has centrioles Major categories of eukaryote cells Major Animal Animal – No chloroplasts – No cell wall – No central vacuole – Has centrioles Plant Plant – – – – – Has cell wall Has chloroplasts Has central vacuole No centrioles Has plasmodesmata Has Cell = A Factory Cell Nucleus Nucleus = management & control center An organelle An Nuclear envelope Nuclear Nuclear pores Chromatin – DNA + protein core DNA = chromosomes chromosomes Nucleolus – mRNA – tRNA & rRNA tRNA rRNA = Ribosome subunits Nucleus tRNA AA tRNA AA AA AA tRNA tRNA rRNA tRNA AA Membrane System within cell within A family Membrane System Components Nuclear envelope Nuclear Endoplasmic reticulum – Rough – Smooth Golgi complex aka Golgi body Golgi aka Golgi apparatus aka Lysosomes Plasma membrane A ll similar in composit ion; All T her efor e, all can mer ge wit h one anot her one Endoplasmic reticulum Endoplasmic a manufacturing center ER – Rough Rough Ribosomes on surface make membrane Ribosomes OR make proteins – Smooth – Embedded enzymes make lipids – OR they detox poisons – Vesicles Transport “tagged” cargo – To Golgi Golgi Golgi a distribution and repackaging center distribution Reads tag Reads In/out Modifies some molecules Glycoprotein Repackages proteins and Repackages lipids lipids Lysosomes Formed by Golgi Formed Has digestive enzymes Has formed in rER formed Lysosomes Lysosomes Cell’s digestive system Food, Food, Damaged organelles, Damaged Excess membrane Garbage Vacuoles Contractile vacuole Do Do – Water Water regulation regulation – Support Central vacuole – Storage Food vacuole Endosymbionic Hypothesis Endosymbionic Some organelles evolved from prokaryotes How do we know Double membrane Size Have own DNA Make their own ATP Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Mitochondria Mitochondria Double membrane Extracts energy in Extracts glucose and other foods and stores it in ATP ATP Chloroplast Chloroplast Double membrane Found in plants and Found some protists some Sites of Sites photosynthesis photosynthesis – Conversion of light Conversion energy to chemical bond energy stored in glucose molecules glucose Cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton Protein fibers – – – Microtubles Microtubles Intermediate filaments Actin or Microfilaments Provide – – – – – Cell Movement Organelle movement Cell division Cell Cell Shape Support Centrioles Cilia & Flagella Plastids Specialized double membrane organelles membrane – Primarily storage Primarily containers containers Starch Pigments What is a plasmid? amen amen ...
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