Chapter 3 fall '08 bio mol

Chapter 3 fall '08 bio mol - Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Biological...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Biological Molecules Today we will learn about Today we will learn about Carbon How bio molecules made Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids carbon carbon Organic molecules because living organisms can make them C & H C “backbone” For example: CH4 why: 4e in outer shell Permits single, double, triple covalent bonds carbon carbon A hydrocarbon is: an organic molecule having only carbon and hydrogen atoms carbon carbon Organic Called organic because living organisms can make them Carbon molecules w/at least hydrogen C considered the “backbone” of organic molecules For example: CH4 Inorganic Carbon molecules w/o hydrogen (CO2) A hydrocarbon is an organic molecule having only carbon and hydrogen atoms carbon carbon C versatile: why: 4 e in outer shell linear Permits single, double, triple covalent bonds Can form complex shapes ringed branched carbon carbon C versatile: why: 4 e in outer shell Permits single, double, triple covalent bonds ringed Can form complex shapes >>>>>>>>> linear fg Can add functional groups to core of carbon atoms branched fg fg fg cc c fg fg fg fg Functional groups Functional groups Attach to the carbon backbone Glucose C6H 12O 6 Functional groups Functional groups Determine the characteristic (e.g. nonpolar) and the chemical reactivity of the molecule (e.g. hydrophobic) Monomers­Polymers Monomers­Polymers Monomers An organic molecule unto itself e.g. glucose Its c he mic al f orm ul a is? ?? Monomers­Polymers Monomers­Polymers Monomers A molecule unto itself Covalently bond with other monomers to form Polymer Made up of 00’s, 000’s, 000,000’s of monomers Cellulose = glu+glu+glu+etc. glucose Monomers­Polymers Monomers­Polymers Monomers A molecule unto itself Covalently bond together to form Polymer Made up of 00’s,000’s,000000’s of monomers Monomers of form Polymers called Monosaccharides Polysaccharides (4) Amino acids Proteins Nucleotides Polynucleotides Monomers of the monosaccharide Glucose covalently bond into Monomers of the monosaccharide Glucose covalently bond into a unique structure, the polysaccharide polymer called Cellulose The making of polymer molecules The making of polymer molecules How joined Monomer to monomer By dehydration synthesis Water removed • How broken apart •By hydrolysis •Water added aka Condensation Enzymes needed for both processes The Biological Molecules The Biological Molecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids 4 elements Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Made of C H O in 1­2­1 ratio Primarily used for energy Also a structural material Carbohydrates Carbohydrates 3 types Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides Made of C H O in 1­2­1 ratio Primarily used for energy Also a structural material Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Disaccharides Made of C H O in 1­2­1 ratio Primarily used for energy Also a structural material Polysaccharides Monosaccharides A monomer A small, simple, single sugar 3 ways of portraying the same molecule Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Made of C H O in 1­2­1 ratio Primarily used for energy Also a structural material Polysaccharides Disaccharides A small, double sugar 2 single sugars bonded together Monosaccharides A monomer A small, simple, single sugar How formed? Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Monosaccharides A monomer A small, simple, single sugar Disaccharides A small, double sugar 2 single sugars bonded Made of C H O in 1­2­1 ratio Primarily used for energy Also a structural material Polysaccharides Are polymers Not sugars But ALL made of glucose 4 types Starch Glycogen Cellulose Chitin ose ose Monosaccharides can also be used to make up Monosaccharides can also be used to make up parts of other large molecules Examples are: mucus, hormones, nucleotides Lipids Lipids Some are energy storage molecules Some form waterproof coverings on plant and animal bodies Some make up most of all of the membranes of a cell Some are hormones Insoluble in water Insoluble in water 3 major groups of lipids 3 major groups of lipids Fats Phospholipids Steroids Fats Fats Oils, fats, (and waxes) Energy and protection Long term energy storage Store twice the energy as sugars, starches, and glycogen Fats Long term energy storage Fats & plant oils are made up of 3 fatty acid molecules (glycerides) and a glycerol molecule 3 These molecules are joined by _____ bonds Via a process known as ________ Forming a __________ Oils & Fats Oils & Fats Long term energy storage Fats & oils = triglycerides Covalent bonds Dehydration synthesis Triglyceride Oils & Fats Oils & Fats Long term energy storage Fats & oils = triglycerides Formed by dehyration synthesis Notice that a double bond between 2 carbons produces a kink Saturated, Unsaturated & Trans Saturated, Unsaturated & Trans Fats Saturated Possess as many H atoms as possible (saturated) Because their fatty acids all have single carbon to carbon covalent bonds Solid at room temp Animals Unsaturated Trans configuration Saturated, Unsaturated & Trans Saturated, Unsaturated & Trans Fats Saturated Unsaturated Solid at room temp Animals Possess as many H atoms as possible (saturated) Because fatty acids all have single carbon to carbon covalent bonds Do not have as many H atoms as possible (unsaturated) Because their fatty acid chains have one or more double carbon to carbon covalent bonds producing kinky chains An oil at room temp Plants Trans configuration Saturated, Unsaturated & Trans Saturated, Unsaturated & Trans Fats Saturated Unsaturated Possess as many H atoms as possible (saturated) Because fatty acids all have single carbon to carbon covalent bonds Solid at room temp Do not have as many H atoms as possible (unsaturated) have one or more double carbon to carbon covalent bonds producing kinky chains An oil at room temp Trans configuration (rare in nature) Some carbon double bonds of unsaturated oil replaced with H atoms Results in hydrogenated oil Fatty acids assume a zig zag shape permitting stacking and the formation of a solid at room temp think oleo margarine Trans fatty acids have been shown to increase “bad” LDL cholesterol in the blood and lower “good” HDL cholesterol HIGHER RISK OF HEART DISEASE ugly that !!!! ugly Waxes Waxes Chemically similar to fats Form waterproof coating over leaves and stems of land plants Highly saturated But not digestible by most animals i.e. not a food Also mammalian fur & insect exoskeletons Also used in beehives Phospholipids Phospholipids Primary molecule of cellular membranes Which hates water? Steroids Steroids Steroids The bastard of the crowd Steroids consist of 4 carbon rings fused together plus various functional groups attach to rings Cholesterol Determine characteristics and chemical reactivity of molecule Steroids Steroids Steroids consist of 4 carbon rings fused together with various functional groups protruding from them Cholesterol Cell membranes Liver bile which assists in fat digestion Hormones that regulate salt levels Also used to make sex steroids e.g. estrogen and testosterone Proteins Do Proteins Do They have a variety of functions because of the diversity of their structure Is you Some Proteins Proteins Are formed from 3 or more amino acids + + Amino acids 20 different Therefore countless proteins possible All have a core Carbon + Proteins Proteins Are formed from 3 or more amino acids Amino acids 20 different Therefore countless proteins possible All have a core Carbon Surrounded by 4 different functional groups 4th 1 3 2 3 stay the same The 4th, variable group “R” gives each protein its distinct properties Proteins Proteins Are formed from 3 or more amino acids Amino acids 20 different Therefore countless proteins possible All have a core Carbon Surrounded by 4 different functional groups 3 stay the same The 4th, variable group “R” gives each protein its distinct = a monomer properties Proteins Formed By Proteins Formed By monomer + monomer Formed by dehydration synthesis The covalent bond between 2 amino acids = peptide bond Chains of amino acids forming proteins can vary in length from 3 to the thousands Peptide = 2 amino acids joined; also term for amino acid chain shorter than 50 Polypeptide = a long chain of amino acids: >50 At least a 3 chain peptide OR 1, 2, 3 polypeptides = protein Proteins Formed By Proteins Formed By Formed by dehydration synthesis The covalent bond between 2 amino acids = peptide bond Peptide = 2 amino acids joined also term for amino acid chain shorter than 50 Polypeptide = a long chain of amino acids: >50 At least a 3 chain peptide OR 1, 2, 3 polypeptides = protein Chains of amino acids forming proteins can vary in length from 3 to the thousands Proteins Formed By Proteins Formed By Formed by dehydration synthesis The covalent bond between 2 amino acids = peptide bond Peptide = 2 amino acids joined; also term for amino acid chain shorter than 50 Polypeptide = a long chain of amino acids: >50 At least a 3 chain peptide to 1, 2, 3 polypeptides = protein Chains of amino acids forming proteins can vary in length from 3 to the thousands Proteins Formed By Proteins Formed By These terms/definitions can confuse. Be able to differentiate. Formed by dehydration synthesis The covalent bond between 2 amino acids = peptide bond Peptide = 2 amino acids joined; also term for amino acid chain shorter than 50 Polypeptide = a long chain of amino acids: >50 At least a 3 chain peptide OR 1, 2, 3 polypeptides = protein Chains of amino acids forming proteins can vary in length from 3 to the thousands Protein structure Protein structure Within a protein, helix the exact type, position, and # of amino acids determine BOTH the 1. structure of the protein and 2. its biological function 2 pleated Protein structure Protein structure 1. Primary Amino acid sequence Secondary 3 Folded secondary Quaternary • 1 Helix and/or pleated Tertiary • 4. helix Up to 4 levels of structure • 3. 2 Within a protein, the exact type, position, and # of amino acids bearing R groups determine BOTH the structure of the protein and its biological function • 2. And/or Links 2 or more tertiaries 4 Nucleic Acids = DNA & RNA Nucleic Acids = DNA & RNA Have a core component of nucleotide monomers Nucleotides have a 3 part structure 1 3 2 Deoxyribose nucleotides Deoxyribose nucleotides • basic structural component of DNA • all have the same phosphate group • all have the monosaccharide deoxyribose • will have 1 of 4 bases attached to the sugar adenine guanine cytosine thymine Ribose nucleotides • basic structural component for RNA • all have the same phosphate group as DNA • all have the monosaccharide ribose • uracil replaces thymine as 1 of the 4 bases Nucleotides chain themselves together Nucleotides chain themselves together Covalently Sugar to Phosphate to Sugar …….. Forming a polynucleotide Nucleic acid = DNA Nucleic acid = DNA Two deoxyribose nucleotide chains, each considered a polynucleotide, join together at their bases, forming the nucleic acid molecule, DNA Contains the genetic code necessary to make proteins + Nucleic acid = RNA Nucleic acid = RNA Ribose nucleotides (monomer) Contain the sugar ribose Have 4 different bases Adenine guanine cytosine uracil A single chain of these nucleotides form RNA (a polymer …) One version copies the genetic code from DNA and transports it to protein makers Single nucleotides Single nucleotides Carries chemical signals from plasma membrane to molecules in the cell Carry energy stored in the bonds between phosphate groups from place to place within the cell Assist enzymes in promoting chemical reactions A molecule with only carbon and hydrogen atoms can BEST be A molecule with only carbon and hydrogen atoms can BEST be described as a a. Methane molecule b. Organic element c. Hydrocarbon d. All of the above What determines the characteristics and the chemical reactivity of organic molecules? a. The carbon backbone b. Its functional groups c. How many C atoms it has d. If it is a hydrocarbon T/F Dehydration synthesis adds water to make the reaction happen. Covalent bonds between 2 amino acids are aka _______________. The monomer making up RNA is _______________. It is has 3 parts: _____ _______ and a base. The base that is different from DNA bases is ________. amen amen ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/02/2011 for the course BIOL 110 taught by Professor Duwel during the Fall '08 term at South Carolina.

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