chap 1 fall '08 student

chap 1 fall '08 student - Bio 110 Course Materials Fall...

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Unformatted text preview: Bio 110 Course Materials Fall ‘08 Chapter 1 Intro to Life Biology is Characteristics of Life Organized how Theories of Biology Classifications of Life Scientific Method Biology is A definition is Has “One” language Life A property of life Scientifically speaking = a hypothesis A hypothesis is an educated guess that can be proven false These properties of life have never been proven false For example A property of life (CONT) For example we hypothesize we make an educated guess “That to exhibit life an organism must be able to reproduce” Scientists have never found a living organism that did not reproduce So we consider this finding to be a “property of life” So what is the THEORY OF LIFE?? Theory An explanation – Natural events x m e ri p nts e ex Based on “COUNTLESS” observations – IAW scientific principles Natural causality Natural laws apply everywhere for all time Natural events are perceived in similar ways Theory of Life = all hypotheses or properties of life taken together Characteristics or Properties of Life Complex, organized Moves Respond to stimuli Maintain internal environment Acquire and use energy Grow/metabolize Reproduce Evolve First 3 Properties of Life Complex Exhibit movement Respond to stimuli ? ??? ??? First 3 Properties of Life Complex Exhibit movement Respond to stimuli to on d m om idere of c lso cons rties e re a not rop s a re p e erti ey a just p pro ts, th g” life ese bjec finin th ce ing o s “de life Sin ­liv e n e rti n o p ro p be to Properties of Life Have movement Complex Respond to stimuli Cellular organization – Living things are made up of one or more cells – You have @ 100 trillion cells Levels of biological organization Life is Organized Properties of Life Have movement Complex Respond to stimuli Cellular organization Metabolize – Living things assimilate energy and use it to grow Properties of Life Have movement Complex Respond to stimuli Cellular organization Metabolize Homeostasis – Living things maintain stable internal environments – e.g. Constant pH; a water balance; same temp Properties of Life Have movement Complex Respond to stimuli Cellular organization Metabolize Homeostasis Reproduction – Is capable of duplicating itself – It evolves Properties of Life Have movement Complex Respond to stimuli Cellular organization Metabolize Homeostasis Reproduction Heredity – The transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring – Via genes And remember: all taken together = Theory of Life Theory An explanation – Natural events x m e ri p nts e ex Based on “COUNTLESS” observations – IAW scientific principles Natural causality Natural laws apply everywhere for all time Natural events are perceived in similar ways Theories of Biology Bio­classification: Greeks & 1750 & 1984 Cell theory 1837 Homeostasis 1850 Evolution by Natural Selection 1859 Inheritance of Traits 1859 Ecosystems 20th century Theories of Biology Bio­classification: Greeks & 1750 & 1984 – Aristotle simplistic view – Linneaus 1750s codified classification scheme based on morphology similarities and differences – Since 1984 a classification based on DNA Cell theory 1837 Homeostasis 1850 Evolution by Natural Selection 1859 Inheritance of Traits 1859 Ecosystems 20th century Classification continued Bacteria Kingdom Eubacteria Archaea K. Archaeabacteria Eukarya 3 Domains K. Protista K. Fungi K. Plants K. Animal Classifications of life Domain (3) Kingdom (6) Phylum Class Order Family Genus species Scientific name Note: species not capitalized Homo sapiens Theories of Biology Bio­classification: Greeks & 1750 & 1984 Cell theory 1837 – Work of Schleiden and Schwann – Theory based on 3 findings All organisms composed of cells All cells came from preexisting cells A cell is the smallest unit capable of supporting life Homeostasis 1850 Evolution by Natural Selection 1859 Inheritance of Traits 1859 Ecosystems 20th century Theories of Biology Bio­classification: Greeks & 1750 & 1984 Cell theory 1837 Homeostasis 1850 – Claude Bernard – Having and maintaining stable internal conditions This permits organisms to tolerate varying external conditions Evolution by Natural Selection 1859 Inheritance of Traits 1859 Ecosystems 20th century Theories of Biology Bio­classification: Greeks & 1750 & 1984 Cell theory 1837 Homeostasis 1850 Evolution by Natural Selection 1859 – Charles Darwin – Said species change through natural selection – Evolution = changing of a species’ characteristics over time – Natural Selection = individuals more suitable for survival and reproduction will tend to leave more offspring and so become more common in future generations Inheritance of Traits 1859 Ecosystems 20th century Theories of Biology Bio­classification: Greeks & 1750 & 1984 Cell theory 1837 Homeostasis 1850 Evolution by Natural Selection 1859 Inheritance of Traits 1859 – Gregory Mendel Done by “factors” now known as genes Ecosystems 20th century Theories of Biology Bio­classification: Greeks & 1750 & 1984 Cell theory 1837 Homeostasis 1850 Evolution by Natural Selection 1859 Inheritance of Traits 1859 Ecosystems 20th century – Organisms react with each other and their environments therefore changes in any part cause changes in other parts Scientific Method Natural causality = scientific inquiry observe guess=hypothesis test analyze retest (if required) – A ‘natural’ reason for things to be as they are Laws apply for all time & everywhere People see events in similar ways Obj not Subj Creationism all in 1 blink Intelligent Design Life 1. 2. 3. Began 3.5 billion years ago but man was a special creation Began 3.5 billion years ago and evolved into man Began as a macro virus amen ...
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