chapt 20,21,6 plants&photsynthesis fall '08

chapt 20,21,6 plants&photsynthesis fall '08 -...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapters 6,20,21 6,20,21 Photosynthesis & Plants Today we will Lecture on: Lecture Photosynthesis Plants – General characteristics General – Descended from & y we think so – To live on land – Key features – Major groups Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Cynobacteria Algae plants Potassium ion In O2 CO2 out Diffusion X35,000 chloroplast An autotropic process An A photoautotropic process photoautotropic Photosynthesis C6H12O6 vs respiration Light Chlorophyll 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O Enzymes (CH2O) Photosynthesis is a two step process 6H2O + 6CO2 C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O (CH2O) H2O + ADP + P + NADP+ O2 + ATP + NADPH Chloro + enz Chlor + enz ½ O2 + ATP + NADPH + H+ C6H12O6 + ADP + P + NADP+ + H2O Step 1: Light dependent phase Function: Solar energy to (temp) chemical bond energy energy H2O + ADP + P + NADP+ Chlor + enz ½ O2 + ATP + NADPH + H+ Occurs in the thylakoid membrane Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate chloroplast Quantum Electromagnetic radiation photons e distinguish differences in visible wave lengths as different col o Ther efor e differ ent color s have differ ent ener gy levels Pigment A substance that absorbs visible light Therefore also energy Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Carotenoids vs Pigment pods Either Photosystem I Or Photosystem II Embedded in thylakoid membrane Antenna pigments b c b C Reaction-center molecules aa c b a b c b Antenna pigments Reaction-center molecules b c b C e c b aa e EE Ee b a b New atom c ight phase” lakoid membrane Light + P + NADP+ Chlorophyll ½ O2 + ATP + NA Step 2: light independent phase independent Function: Carbon Fixation Function: adds carbon creating an organic molecule adds using (temp) chemICAL bond energy from phase 1 using (carbohydrate: (CH2O) > GLUCOSE (carbohydrate: O2 + ATP + NADPH enzymes C6H12O6 + ADP + P + NADP+ + H2O Step 2 “DARK PHASE” (Calvin Cycle) enzymes CO2 + ATP + NADPH C6H12O6 + ADP + P + NADP+ + H2O Occurs in the stroma of the thylakoid Plant Kingdom Plant Since it is Domain Eukarya – – – True nucleus Strand DNA Organelles – Multicellular Multicellular 2 plant cell defining features defining Plant Kingdom Characteristic Plant Plant Kingdom Plant characteristic characteristic Has 3 characteristics – Combination of: eukaryotic, multicellular, photosynthetic, and an “alternation of generations” life cycle and Alternation of Generations Alternation the life cycle of plants Plants developed Plants From unicellular aquatic green algae ancestors From green Plants developed Plants From aquatic algae ancestors From algae – How do we know: DNA evidence Similar photosynthetic pigments Plants developed Plants From aquatic green algae ancestors – How do we know: DNA evidence Similar photosynthetic pigments Like starches Both have cell walls Both of cellulose of Chloroplasts of like Chloroplasts form form To live on land plants 1. Developed vascular tissue to transport water and nutrients inside plant inside – Xylem & Phloem Vessels – 410 million years ago To live on land plants Developed a vascular tissue to transport water and nutrients inside plant water – Xylem & Phloem Vessels – 410 million years ago 2. Needed a waxy 2. cuticle/cork layer to retard water loss retard To live on land plants Developed a vascular tissue to transport water and nutrients inside plant inside – Xylem & Phloem Vessels – 410 million years ago Needed a waxy cuticle/cork layer Needed to retard water loss to 3. Needed a pore 3. system to exchange the gases of photosynthesis photosynthesis To live on land (cont.) To 4. Developed a root system to 4. 1) anchor plant 2) to absorb water and nutrients from the soil soil – Fungus mycorrhizae (80%) Fungus mycorrhizae symbionic Water and minerals To live on land (cont.) To Developed a root system to Developed 1) anchor plant 1) 2) to absorb water and nutrients from the soil 2) – Mycorrhizae (80%) Water and minerals 5. Needed to be able to reproduce sexually on 5. land & to figure a way how to avoid becoming dried out becoming – – – Spores pollen egg encapsulation egg Major categories of plants Major 4 – Seedless non vascular Bryophytes Bryophytes Moss Moss No vascular system = limited size & range – Seedless vascular Pteridophytes Pteridophytes Ferns Ferns Sporophyte predominant – – Has vascular system = larger size & range Naked seed vascular Gymnosperms Pines Pollen >> expanded range – Covered seed vascular Angiosperms Angiosperms All flowering plants All – Have fruit Green algae Covered Seed, Vascular Plants Covered Only 80-100 million years ago Only 80-100 angiosperms Eucalyptus 325’ The Importance of Angiosperms The Agriculture started a mere 10,000 yrs ago in Turkey-Iran The Importance of Angiosperms The Agriculture started a mere 10,000 yrs ago in Turkey-Iran – Turned hunter-gathers into societies – Quickly spread on east-west axis Why: same climate & genetic luck (wheat) The Americas corn wheat •Not so quick in the Americas Why: different climes and unlucky genetically (teosinte>>maize>>corn) Covered Seed, Vascular Plants Covered 80-100 million years ago Angiosperms (230,000 species, Angiosperms ) and counting and – 3 adaptations allowed angiosperms to replace gymnosperms as dominant land plant 1. Flowers 1. 2. Fruit 3. Broad Leaves Covered Seed, Vascular Plants Covered 80-100 million years ago Angiosperms (230,000 species, Angiosperms 3 adaptations allowed angiosperms to replace gymnosperms as dominant land plant 1. Flowers Flowers Attracted animals Attracted – moved pollen Distance ‘courting’ Protection ) and counting and Covered Seed, Vascular Plants Covered 80-100 million years ago Angiosperms (230,000 species, and counting) – 3 adaptations allowed angiosperms to replace gymnosperms as dominant land plant adaptations Flowers Flowers – Attracted animals: moved pollen Could “court” distant members of own species 2. Fruit 2. Fruit – Fleshy, dry, hard, winged, spiked – Covers seed = protection & maybe food for seedling – Animals/environment disperse seeds Covered Seed, Vascular Plants Covered 80-100 million years ago Angiosperms (230,000 species, and counting) – 3 adaptations allowed angiosperms to replace gymnosperms as dominant land plant adaptations Flowers Flowers – Attracted animals: moved pollen Fruit – Covered seed – Animals moved seeds 3. 3. Broad leaves Broad – Captured more sunlight – Some drop b/c ??? Root ‘n Shoots Root Flowering plants = angiosperms Flowering angiosperms 2 systems Root – 2 types T F – 3 major functions Shoots Shoots – 3 parts stem branches Growth buds – flowers – Monocots or dicots Flower trivia Beetles Beetles – Pollen a/o nectar – Advertised Complete flower – 4 parts Incomplete flower Incomplete Perfect flower Imperfect flower – Squash or holly Flower reproduction Flower reproduction Flower Pollen Male gametophyte Pollination Fertilization Double fertilization – Zygote (2n) – Endosperm (3n) Seed Seed Germination Seed Dormancy Dormancy 1. 2. 3. Lower metabolic rate Resists adverse environment Solves 2 problems 1. Flower germination 2. Proper environment – Break seed coat – Dry or cold or seed coat disruption – Warmth & Moisture Other Angiosperm Roles Other – Its biomass sustains earth (energy) – Its oxygen production vital to other organisms – Ecological anchors Deters soil erosion Absorbs CO2 Provides habitat – Products Products Lumber, paper, medicines, dyes, chemicals Lumber, Info only Categorizing Angiosperms Categorizing 2 ways – Life strategies Annuals – One growing season Biennials – 2 growing seasons: 1st = vegetative; 2nd = repro Perennials – Many years – As Monocotyledons or Dicotyledons As Monocotyledons Monocotyledons 3s 4/5s Parallel veins Net veins Scattered Vascular bundles Ring Fibrous Tap Dicotyledons one Two Typical Monocots Monocots – Lilies, grasses, palms, orchids Dicots – Bushes, deciduous trees, garden flowers The Vascular Tissue System The Function: to transport materials Consists of xylem & phloem Consists phloem – Xylem transports water and dissolved Xylem minerals from roots to rest of plant minerals – Phloem conveys water, sugars, amino acids, Phloem and hormones throughout the plant Transpiration Transpiration est on WED 11/5 All material since last test en am en am en am ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/02/2011 for the course BIOL 110 taught by Professor Duwel during the Fall '08 term at South Carolina.

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