Circulation-a transport sysem fall '08

Circulation-a transport sysem fall '08 - Chapter 23 Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 23 Chapter Circulation Circulation Today we will Today Lecture on – Features/functions of circulation systems – How our heart works How – Blood – Blood vessels – Lymphatic system Why a system Features of Circulatory Systems Systems –3 parts: blood blood blood vessels blood heart heart Features of Circulatory Systems Systems 3 parts: – – – blood blood blood vessels blood heart heart 2 types: – open – closed closed 3 advantages Functions of Vertebrate Systems Functions (7) (7) Functions of Vertebrate Systems Functions (7) (7) – Transport O and CO – Transport wastes – Distribute nutrients – Distribute hormones – Regulate body temperature – Prevent blood loss – Protect body 2 2 vertebrate hearts Have at least 1 atrium and 1 ventricle ventricle These chambers These do……… do……… First hearts First looked like this looked 2 1 ours ours Higher metabolic rates demanded more efficient pump 2 One and the same 2 1 superior vena cava 2 inferior vena cave 1 Are veins 2 1 2 1 superior vena cava 2 inferior vena cave 3 right atrium 1 3 2 1 2 3 Right Atrium 1 superior vena cava 2 inferior vena cave 3 right atrium 1 4 right atrioventricular valve 3 4 2 1 2 3 Right Atrium 4 RAVV 1 superior vena cava 2 inferior vena cave 3 right atrium 4 right atrioventricular valve 1 5 right ventricle 3 5 4 2 5 1 2 3 Right Atrium Right ventricle 4 1 superior vena cava 2 inferior vena cave 3 right atrium 4 right atrioventricular valve 5 right ventricle 1 3 6 right semilunar valve 5 4 2 5 1 2 3 Right Atrium Right ventricle 4 6 6 1 superior vena cava 2 inferior vena cave 3 right atrium 4 right atrioventricular valve 5 right ventricle 6 right semilunar valve 1 7 6 3 5 7 pulmonary artery 8 lungs 4 2 8 Lungs 5 1 2 3 Right Atrium Right ventricle 4 6 7 Pulmonary artery 1 superior vena cava 2 inferior vena cave 3 right atrium 4 right atrioventricular valve 5 right ventricle 6 right semilunar valve 7 pulmonary artery 8 lungs 1 2 10 9 6 3 13 5 11 12 4 5 3 Right Atrium 7 9 9 pulmonary vein 10 left atrium 11 left artrioventricular valve 12 left ventricle 8 13 left semilunar valve Lungs 14 aorta 1 14 Right ventricle 7 Pulmonary artery 2 14 **** vein 9 4 6 12 10 13 11 14 Pulmonary circuit Systemic circuit Cardiac Cycle Cardiac Defined as: the coordinated contractions of atria coordinated Defined and the ventricles and Cardiac Cycle Cardiac Defined as: the coordinated contractions of atria and the Defined ventricles ventricles FIRST: Both atria contract Both Forces blood blood into ventricles Cardiac Cycle Cardiac Defined as: the coordinated contractions of atria Defined and the ventricles and First: Both atria contract 0.1 sec delay THEN Both ventricles contract Pumps blood, blood into arteries Cardiac Cycle Cardiac Defined as: the coordinated contractions of atria Defined and the ventricles and THEN Both ventricles contract First: Both atria contract 0.1 sec delay Heart then relaxes allowing blood to enter both atria Cycle takes 0.8 seconds Cardiac Cycle Cardiac Systolic pressure is measured during ventricle contraction Diastolic pressure is measured when Ventricle relaxed Pacemaker Function: to regulate both atria and ventricle contractions via electrical signals Pacemaker Function: to regulate both atria and ventricle contractions via electrical signals electrical The sinoatrial node is the The sinoatrial primary pacemaker for the heart heart 100 beats per minute 100 gap junctions gap Inexcitable tissue Inexcitable Atrioventricular node 0.1 sec delay why? 0.1 Excitable fibers Fibrillation of the heart = uncontrolled, irregular, weak contractions contractions How is heart rate influenced? How By itself via the SA node = 100 bpm Parasympathetic nervous sys keeps it at Parasympathetic 70 bpm (rest) 70 In stress the sympathetic nervous sys In speeds up rate speeds Hormone epinephrine also increases rate Hormone & preps body for action preps Blood Blood specialized connective tissue Function – Transports nutrients, gases, hormones, Transports and wastes and Blood Blood Function Function – Transports nutrients, gases, hormones, and wastes 2 components – Plasma A fluid made up of 90% water + nutrients proteins hormones salts gases wastes proteins Is 55-60% of blood – Cellular parts = RBCs WBCs platelets RBCs 40-45% of blood 40-45% Blood Blood Function Function – Transports nutrients, gases, hormones, and wastes 2 components – Plasma A fluid made up of 90% water + nutrients proteins hormones salts gases wastes salts Is 55-60% of blood – Cellular parts = RBCs WBCs platelets RBCs 40-45% of blood 40-45% 5-6 liters 8% body weight RBCs RBCs = erythrocytes = 99% of erythrocytes blood cells blood Carry oxygen/carbon Carry dioxide dioxide – Hemoglobin A protein red iron Why disk shaped? RBCs RBCs = erythrocytes = 99% of blood cells Carry oxygen/carbon dioxide – Hemoglobin A protein red iron Neg feedback regulates RBC Neg #s #s – Via Erythropoietin, a kidney Via Erythropoietin kidney hormone hormone – RBCs formed in bone RBCs marrow marrow Why disk shaped? Blood type Blood Glycoproteins – Attached to RBC membrane – – – Types: A (glycoprotein) B AB Types: (glycoprotein) O = universal donor AB = universal receiver Rh factor = + or (glycoprotein) (glycoprotein) – A RBC membrane protein – Pregnancy Erythroblastosis fetalis (both present) (both O (n0 glycoprotein) (n0 WBCs WBCs = leukocytes Used to protect body 5 types types – e.g. Macrophages & lymphocytes <1% of blood All from bone marrow Platelets Platelets = cell fragments fragments Blood clotting trauma & normal wear and tear thrombin fibrinogen fibrin Artery Arteriole Capillary Blood vessels Blood {Interstitial fluid} Venules Vein note Lymphatic System Lymphatic Is: Lymph capillaries Lymph vessels Lymph nodes Lymphocyte tissue patches (tonsils) Lymph Lymph [thymus] [thymus] [spleen] 1 Does 1. Return fluids to blood 2. Transport fats from small intestine to the bloodstream bloodstream 3. Defend body via WBCs ONE WAY Matters of the Matters HEART H EART CARDI OVASCU LAR DI SORDERS Hypertension aka high blood pressure – Constriction of arterioles causing restricted Constriction blood flow and heart strain blood – May cause heart to increase in size but not May more capillaries; leads to more Oxygen deficiency especially during Oxygen exercise = pains = angina angina – Promotes “hardened arteries” aka Promotes arteriosclerosis arteriosclerosis – hypertension reduced by exercise, weight hypertension loss, stress management, (less salt) Matters of the Matters HEART H EART CARDI OVASCU LAR DI SORDERS Arteriosclerosis Arteriosclerosis – Causes arterial walls to thicken and harden Causes caused by accumulation of “bad” LDL (plaque) in wall triggering inflammation; this fought by WBCs enlarging plaque; capped by smooth muscle; if cap ruptures muscle; 1. 2. Clot swept to smaller artery blocking it Clot forms blocking artery OR Stroke Stroke Rupture of cranial artery brought on by Rupture hypertension and arteriosclerosis hypertension Matters of the Matters HEART H EART CARDI OVASCU LAR DI SORDERS – – – – – – Hypertension aka high blood pressure Constriction of arterioles causing restricted blood flow and heart strain May cause heart to increase in size but not more capillaries; leads to Oxygen deficiency esp during exercise pains angina Oxygen angina Promotes “hardened arteries” aka arteriosclerosis Promotes arteriosclerosis hypertension reduced by exercise, weight loss, stress management, (less salt) Stroke Stroke Rupture of cranial artery brought on by hypertension and arteriosclerosis Arteriosclerosis Arteriosclerosis Causes arterial walls to thicken and harden caused by accumulation of “bad” LDL (plaque) in wall triggering inflammation; this Causes fought by WBCs enlarging plaque; capped by smooth muscle; if cap ruptures capped 1. Clot forms blocking artery 2. Clot swept to smaller artery blocking it Heart attack – Occurs when coronary artery blocked, Occurs depriving heart muscle of oxygen, muscle dies depriving ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/02/2011 for the course BIOL 110 taught by Professor Duwel during the Fall '08 term at South Carolina.

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