Chapter 32 Defense fall '08

Chapter 32 Defense fall '08 - Chapter 32 Chapter Defenses...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 32 Chapter Defenses Against Diseases Today (and Wednesday) we will Today Next lecture test (Oct 20-next Monday) Lecture on – Basic defense mechanisms – How nonspecific defenses work – Immune response characteristics – Antibiotics – System malfunctions It’s a War War Know the Enemy Microbe Microbe Parasite Disease Defenses against disease disease Fig 32-1 1 3 LAYERS LAYERS 2 3 Nonspecific means Nonspecific Barriers prevent entry – Skin Skin How: 4 ways How: Nonspecific means Nonspecific Barriers prevent entry – Skin Skin How: 4 How: – Mucus membranes Mucus Found Found How Trap (mucus) or wash Lysozymes pH Digestive enzymes bacteria MICROBES RELENTLESSLY ASSULT and ASSULT CONSTANTLY CONSTANTLY BREECH EXTERNAL BARRIERS THE 2ND LINE OF DEFENSE IS 3 DESTROY CANCEROUS & VIRUS INFECTED CELLS ENGULF MICROBES IF TISSUE DAMAGED ACCOMPANIED BY MASSIVE MICBOBE INVASION IF MAJOR INFECTION IF MAJOR INFECTION ENGULF MICROBES phagocytosis Are WBCs = leukocytes 2 types Macrophages Doubles as housekeeper Neutrophils Are found ????? ENGULF MICROBES DESTROY CANCEROUS & VIRUS INFECTED CELLS Are also WBCs aka ??? How do NKC know a cell is infected? How do they kill? What cleans up debris? ENGULF MICROBES DESTROY CANCEROUS & VIRUS INFECTED CELLS TISSUE DAMAGE & A MASSIVE MICROBE INVASION Inflammatory response (nsid) Inflammatory en ist e L as ple Release cytokin e Pus a mixture of bacteria, dead bacteria, injured tissue, living & dead WBCs injured ENGULF MICROBES DESTROY CANCEROUS & VIRUS INFECTED CELLS when TISSUE DAMAGED and/or ACCOMPANIED BY MASSIVE BACTERIAL INVASION Inflammation ENGULF MICROBES DESTROY CANCEROUS & VIRUS INFECTED CELLS IF TISSUE DAMAGED ACCOMPANIED BY MASSIVE MICBOBE INVASION IF MAJOR INFECTION Fever (nsid) Fever Combats large scale infections Body temp controlled by hypothalamus Set point 98.6 Macrophages >> cytokine = endogenous pyrogen Macrophages endogenous via blood to hypo… establishes higher temp set pt Fever (nsid) Fever Combats large scale infections Body temp controlled by hypothalamus Set point 98.6 Macrophages >> cytokine = endogenous pyrogen Macrophages endogenous via blood to hypo… establishes higher temp set pt Fever fights by – 1) enhancing body defenses how??? (2) – 2) harming invader microbes how??? (2) 2) – 3) >>>cytokine = interferon (fights virus) Interferon works by Interferon T B-c ell ll ce - ID ID FIGHT WIN PROTECT Highly specific & coordinated response Highly coordinated response Army” of WBCs using different chemical weapons of Uses an “ and and All talking to one another All Some terms to know Some Immune system: • The organs producing lymphocytes The • The lymphocytes that produce immune The response response • Their antibodies Terms (cont.) Terms Lymphocytes = WBC = ???? – Arise from precursor lymphocyte stem cells in Arise bone marrow bone And in Made in Function as Terms (cont.) Terms Lymphocytes = WBC = ???? – Arise from precursor lymphocyte cells in bone Arise marrow marrow – Must 1) recognize THE Specific invader Must invader 2) launch an attack 2) 3) remember invader 3) Immune response Terms (cont.) Terms Lymphocytes = WBC = ???? – Arise from precursor lymphocyte cells in bone Arise marrow marrow – Must 1) recognize THE Specific invader 2) launch an attack 2) 3) remember invader 3) 2 types B cells cells T cells Immune response Terms (cont.) Terms Lymphocytes = WBC = ???? – Must 1) recognize THE invader 2) launch an attack 2) 3) remember invader 3) – Arise from precursor lymphocyte cells in bone marrow – 2 types B cells: produce antibodies produce antibodies – 2 offspring Plasma cells: make & secrete antibodies into make bloodstream bloodstream Memory B cells: provide future immunity against provide same antigen same Some terms to know Some Immune system: – Is: The lymphocytes that produce immune response Their antibodies Their The organs producing lymphocytes The Antibody: is a protein, produced by ‘B cells and Antibody cells plasma cells’, that combines with a specific plasma specific “antigen” leading to the microbe’s destruction – Can remain with the B cell or become detached Can cell – Plasma cells produce free antibodies Some terms to know Some Immune system: – Is: The lymphocytes that produce immune response Their antibodies Their The organs producing lymphocytes The Antigen (antibody response generating): a molecule Antigen body generating): molecule peculiar to an invading microbe/toxin which generates an immune cell response immune – Can be proteins or polysaccharides or glycoproteins – found On surface of microbe or cancer cell In plasma membrane of virus infected cells In blood: can be dissolved e.g. snake venom Antibody: is a protein, produced by ‘B cells’, that combines with a specific antigen leading to antigen destruction specific thus neutralizing the invader thus – Can remain with the B cell or become detached Can cell Antibodies 5 classes a B cell or plasma cell protein product Their structure is the KEY to identifying specific antigens antigens Light chain Heavy chain Variable region aka ‘arm’ Constant region aka ‘stem’ arm stem Antibody (cont.) (cont.) “arms” & “stems” Arm has “active site” Arm Binds usually to a specific antigen but some to several antigens several arm Antibody (cont.) (cont.) “arms” & “stems” Arm has “active site” Arm Binds to a few types of antigens antigens Stems determine the mechanism Stems by which the antibody will act against the invader against e.g. (a) remains attached to B cell or or (b) is detached, dissolves in blood, finding antigens there Terms (cont.) Terms Lymphocytes = WBC = ???? – Must 1) recognize THE invader 2) launch an attack 2) 3) remember invader 3) – Arise from precursor lymphocyte cells in bone marrow – 2 types B cells: produce antibodies – Plasma cells: B cell offspring; secrete antibodies into bloodstream – Memory B cells: B cell offspring; provide future immunity against same cell antigen T-cells: regulate immune response OR kill certain cells regulate – 3 types Cytotoxic T-cells: destroy specific targeted cells destroy Helper T-cells: stimulate both B-cell & Cytotoxic T-cell response Memory T-cells: provide future immunity T-cells T-cells Have protein receptors attch to their Have surface surface – Function as antigen receptors Function antigen Only triggered by antigens found on plasma membranes of membranes 1. macrophages which have ingested microbes 2. cancerous cells 2. 3. virus infected cells 3. To be continued on Wednesday To ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/02/2011 for the course BIOL 110 taught by Professor Duwel during the Fall '08 term at South Carolina.

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