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How checkpoints controlled how by signals a molecule

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Unformatted text preview: heck for chromosome alignment Check – Why? How checkpoints controlled How By SIGNALS – A molecule that stimulates or inhibits an event – Can be internal Kinase, an enzyme, and the protein “cyclin” Kinase, – Together, permit start of “S” phase and later, mitotic cell division – or external Growth factors and hormones Contact inhibition Shortening of chromosomes (aging) – Telomeres; TTAGGG; 15,000 base pairs; 70 cell divisions Cancers Classified by Location •Carcinomas Breast, lung, colon, prostate Breast, •Sarcomas Bone, cartilage Bone, •Leukemias Blood, bone marrow cells Blood, •Lymphoma Carcinogenesis= cancer development Carcinogenesis= – Gradual Carcinogens= cancer causing agents – Gamma rays – UV rays – Radioactivity – Viruses Viruses Characteristics of cancer cells Characteristics Lack differentiation Have abnormal nuclei Form tumors Undergo metastasis Promote angiogenesis Promote Angiogenesis Formation of new blood vessels Formation Enzymes generated by cancer cells Enzymes promote angiogenesis promote Why? – Cancer fast growing – Needs ready source of nutrients and oxygen Some cancer treatments designed to stop Some the formation of these new vessels the Tumors Benign Benign – Usually encapsulated Malignant = Malignant – capable of spreading Types of mal...
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