genetics glossary terms

genetics glossary terms - Allele A particular version of a...

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Allele : A particular version of a gene at a location in a chromosome. Also defined as: Alternative forms of a gene. Mutations can create new alleles. Autosome : A chromosome other than a sex chromosome i.e.chromosomes that are not directly involved in determining sex. Humans have 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes. Carrier: Heterozygous individual who has no apparent abnormality but can pass on an allele for a recessively inherited genetic disorder. Characteristic : A feature that can be inherited. Characteristic vs. trait: Characteristic = hair color trait = blond Chromosome : A coiled rod shaped structure of DNA and protein found in the nuclei of all eukaryotic cells and visable during cell division. Humans in their diploid cells, have 2 set of chromosomes in 22 autosomal pair and 1 sex pair of chromosomes. In human sperm or egg, you have one set of chromosomes in 22 autosomal chromosomes and 1 sex chromosome. Complete dominance: When different alleles of the same trait are present, one allele expresses itself and masks the expression of all other alleles of the same trait. Dihybrid Cross : A cross involving two pairs of traits. DNA : Deoxyribonucleic acid which is the genetic material of most organisms. Made of 2 nucleotide polymeres (sugar-phosphate-base) bound at their bases in a helix configuration. DNA contains gene and non-gene segments of nucleotides. Diploid : Having 2 set of genes and chromosomes (2n), one set from each parent. Dominance : In a heterozygote, the allele phenotypically expressed. The correct term is complete dominance . The allele that is expressed is called the dominant allele. The
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This note was uploaded on 06/02/2011 for the course BIOL 110 taught by Professor Duwel during the Fall '08 term at South Carolina.

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genetics glossary terms - Allele A particular version of a...

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