Development for posting

Development for posting - Getting a Start in Life Gametes...

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Unformatted text preview: Getting a Start in Life Gametes – Sperm – Egg Chromosomes – XX = female – XY = male Maturation Stages of Development in the Womb Trimesters Zygote – A fertilized egg Embryo – 2 ­ 8 weeks after conception Fetus – 8 weeks until birth Teratogens Chemicals – Alcohol, heroin, cocaine, environmental pollutants, caffeine, smoking Viruses – Chicken pox, rubella, HIV Radiation Diet, stress Reflexes Present at Birth (and How Long They Last) Withdrawal (10 days) Stepping (2 months) Sucking (3 months) Rooting (3­4 months) Palmar grasp (4 months) Startle (5 months) Swimming (6 months) Tonic neck (7 Plantar (1 year) Babinski (1 year) Eye blink (life) Temperament Approach style Withdrawal style Importance of biological variables Infancy and Childhood Physical and motor development – Milestones Perceptual development – Auditory perception – Visual perception Visual cliff experiment Habituation technique Language Development Child­directed speech Distinguishing sounds from different languages Babbling – Even deaf children babble Jean Piaget Stages of cognitive development Schema Assimilation Accommodation Sensorimotor Period Age – 0–2 years Major achievements – Object permanence – Imitation Preoperational Period Age – 2–7 years Major achievement – Conservation Concrete Operations Period Age – 7–11 years Major achievements – Classifying objects – Logic tied to physical world – Basic reversibility Formal Operations Period Age – 11 years (at the earliest) Major achievements – Abstract concepts – Logic – Reversibility – Hypothetical thinking Beyond Piaget Theory of mind Naïve physics Culture Piaget underestimated children Information Processing and Neural Development Sensory memory Working memory Cognitive strategies Brain development Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory Private speech Role of social interaction Attachment Harlow’s monkeys – Importance of comfort contact Separation anxiety “Strange situation” experiments – Secure attachment – Avoidant attachment – Resistant attachment – Disorganized/disoriented attachment Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg Moral dilemmas Three levels of moral development – Preconventional – Conventional – Postconventional Kohlberg’s Dilemmas Example: Heinz steals an expensive drug from a greedy pharmacist to save his dying wife Boys were asked to reason about morality Ranged in age from 10 to 16 Preconventional Level Fear of punishment Obedience to authority “If you let your wife die, you will get in trouble.” Conventional Level Follow social rules Want to be a “good boy” or “good girl” “If he lets his wife die, people will think he is heartless.” Postconventional Level Social contract Universal ethical principles “Human life is the highest principle; everything else is secondary. People have a duty to save the lives of others.” Critique of Kohlberg’s Levels Culture­specific Gender­specific Reasoning versus behavior Adolescence Physical development – Puberty Cognitive development – Abstract reasoning Adolescent egocentrism – Imaginary audience – Personal fable – Peer pressure Social and Emotional Development in Adolescence Conflicts with parents – Most frequent in early adolescence – Most intense inmid­adolescence Mood swings – Depression – Loneliness Risk taking Adulthood and Aging The changing body – Genes – Environment Adulthood and Aging Perception – Cataracts – Hearing – Taste Memory – Semantic – Episodic – Working memory Adulthood and Aging Intelligence and specific abilities – Fluid intelligence – Crystallized intelligence Research methods – Longitudinal studies – Cross­sectional studies – Cohort Social and Emotional Development in Adulthood Erikson’s psychosocial stages in adulthood – Intimacy versus isolation – Generativity versus self­absorption – Integrity versus despair Personality is relatively stable through adulthood Mature emotions Socioemotional selectivity theory ...
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